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Stages of Language Development

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mike gervasoni

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Stages of Language Development

Language is a light into the
thoughts and feelings of others.

Are you listening?

How language develops
Stages

Birth - cooing

6 months - babbling

1 year - first words

2 years - 2 word phrases

3 years - sentences

4 years - story telling

5 years - grammar almost adult like


Bowen, C. (2011). speech-language-therapy dot com. Retrieved from http://
www.speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34:ages&catid=11:admin&Itemid=117
In the beginning
Researchers have found that in all languages, parents utilize a style of speech with infants known as infant-directed speech, or motherese (aka "baby talk"). If you've every heard someone speak to a baby, you'll probably immediately recognize this style of speech. It is characterized by a higher-pitched intonation, shortened or simplified vocabulary, shortened sentences and exaggerated vocalizations or expressions. Instead of saying "Let's go home," a parent might instead say "Go bye-bye."

Infant-directed speech has been shown to be more effective in getting an infant's attention as well as aiding in language development. Researchers believe that the use of motherese helps babies learn words faster and easier. As children continue to grow, parents naturally adapt their speaking patterns to suit their child's growing linguistic skills.

Bee, H., & Boyd, D. (2010). The developing child (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Things to consider while teaching language
Let's take a look at the Theories of Language Development
Nativist Approach - (Chomsky) - humans are hard wired for language

Empiricist Approach -

Behaviorist - (Skinner) -
Stimulus - Response - Reinforcement, caregivers are key

Social Interactionist - (Dore, Brunner, Bates)
Child is active participant - interest in learning language
Environment is key - language child is exposed to

Cecjrk. (2009, October 31). Language Acquisition Theories [Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube website:
Conclusion
We are all individuals who love to communicate in our own special way.

We need those around us to appreciate our unique ways and take the time to embrace what connects with each of our individual ways to learn

Communication is the key to life because without it we would be alone.
English Language Learner (ELL)
Nativist
Behaviorist
Social Interactionist
Researchers have also found when babies first start babbling, they typically babble all kinds of sounds, including some that are not part of the language they are hearing. Then, beginning at about 9 or 10 months of age, the sound repertoire of infants gradually begins to shift toward the set of sounds they are listening to, with the nonheard sounds dropping out (babble in native language). Findings like these do not prove that babbling is necessary for language development, but they certainly make it look as if babbling is part of a connected developmental process that begins at birth.

Bee, H., & Boyd, D. (2010). The developing child (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
A
B
C
Chomsky (1968) proposed that children come equipped with an innate mental structure the language acquisition device (LAD) -- which makes learning easier.
According to Chomsky, the LAD contains a set of features common to all languages, which he termed a universal grammar.
Critique: Linguists have failed to specify the nature of universal grammar. Many linguists have speculated that this may not be possible. There is little evidence neurological evidence to support the existence of a biologically-based LAD.

University of Iowa. (2012). Language Development [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07u238/ppt/language_development.ppt.
Skinner argued that children learn language as parents selectively reward or punish only those behaviors which they recognize as appropriate, grammatically correct utterances.
Critique: It is simply not possible for parents to reinforce or punish all of the possible utterances a child will use.
Studies of parent-child interaction show that parents reward grammatically incorrect utterances that are truthful.

University of Iowa. (2012). Language Development [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07u238/ppt/language_development.ppt.
Bruner (1983) argues parents provide their children a language acquisition support system or LASS.
The LASS is a collection of strategies that parents employ to facilitate their children’s acquisition of language.
One of these strategies is scaffolding, the deliberate use of language at a level that is slightly beyond what children can comprehend.
Critique: deVilliers & deVilliers (1992) suggest that parents rarely offer their children direct feedback on the appropriateness of their grammar, and yet children continue to learn language.

University of Iowa. (2012). Language Development [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07u238/ppt/language_development.ppt.
Phonological is an awareness of the rules governing sound patterns that are specific to a language. It also includes knowledge of that particular language’s system for representing sounds with letters.

Developmentalists now have abundant evidence that children who are more phonologically aware at age 3, 4, or 5 later learn to read much more easily (Adams, Trieman, & Pressley, 1998; Bryant, MacLean, Bradley, & Crossland, 1990; Hansen & Bowey, 1994; Wagner et al., 1997; Whitehurst, 1995).

Phonological skills can be learned in elementary school through formal instruction (Ball, 1997; Bus & van IJzendoorn, 1999; Segers & Verhoeven, 2004). However, numerous studies have shown that the greater a child’s phonological awareness before he enters school, the faster he learns to read (Christensen, 1997; Gilbertson & Bramlett, 1998; Schatschneider, Francis, Foorman, Fletcher, & Mehta, 1999; Wood & Terrell, 1998).

However, curriculum flexibility is also important in programs for poor readers. Some do not improve when phonics approaches are used. In fact, programs such as the Reading Recovery program, which combine sound-letter practice and comprehension training, have proven to be highly successful in helping poor readers catch up, especially when the programs are implemented in the early elementary years (Hurry & Sylva, 2007).

Bee, H., & Boyd, D. (2010). The developing child (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Research has shown that no particular approach to second-language learning is more successful than any other (Mohanty & Perregaux, 1997). There is some indication that programs that include a home-based component, such as those that encourage parents to learn the new language along with their children, may be especially effective (Koskinen et al., 2000).
Sears, J. (2012, December 17). Stages of Language Development
[Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube website:
Cecjrk. (2009, October 31). Language Acquisition Theories [Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube website
eHowEducation (2010, September 21). Teaching Skills: How to Help Young
Children Improve Their Language Ability [Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube website:
Newhall, T. (2012, November 28). Language-Based Learning Disabilities: A Book Written by Teachers for Teachers [Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube website:
Teaching Channel (2011, May 2). Building Community in a Multi Language Classroom [Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube website:
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