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AP US History Review 2

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Victoria Hanley

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of AP US History Review 2

AP U.S. History Review 2
Transcontinental Railroad
-1865 more than 12,000 Chinese began building
Republican Reconstruction
-Charles Sumner and Thadeus Stevens
Dawes Act
-gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land and allotment of tracts to individual owners
Post Civil War Southern Society
Social Darwinism
Gospel of Wealth
Laissez Faire Economics
Titans of Industry
Gilded-Age Business Cycles
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Southern and Eastern European Immigrants
Growth of Cities
Frederick Jackson Turner Thesis
Spanish American War
Open Door Policy
Frederick Douglas
W.E.B. Du Bois
League of Nations
Economics Policies
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Building Limitations
WW II Draft and Difference From WWI Draft
Post WWI
Attitude of Americans
Ford - Model T - Assembly Line
Scopes Trial
and Cultural Conflict
1920s Literature
Plessy v. Ferguson
Brown v. Board of Education
1930s Isolationism
Great Depression
Hoover Attitude
Toward Welfare and Handouts
Labor Unions
Neutrality Acts
Franklin D. Roosevelt
World War II
Harry S. Truman
Lyndon B. Johnson
Civil Rights
1960s Protests
-Wade-Davis Bill
50% loyalty oath
-disenfranchised Confederate leaders
-14th and 15th Amendments
-Tenure of Office Act
-Compromise of 1877
troops must be taken out of South
Democrats allow Hayes to be president
blacks enter with former masters
worked their own land and paid land lord share of crop
-Black Codes
guaranteed stable labor supply
blacks became sharecroppers
-cycle of debt and depression
160 acres to the head of the family
-argued that individuals who failed did so because of their own weakness and "unfitness"
-encouraged a broad critique of the government intervention on social and economic life
-people of great wealth had the duty to use their riches to advance social progress
-government not heavily involved in economy
-ended with FDR's New Deal

-"hands off" approach
-J.P. Morgan was a great banker of NY
-Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish immigrant who opened his own steel works in Pittsburgh in 1873
controlled processing of steel from mine to market
-John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Co. was a combo of horizontal and vertical integration
bought out competing refineries
-Cornelius Vanderbilt helped develop and control the railroads
-Post-Reconstruction Era characterized by facade of prosperity
-Mark Twain
covered in gold
glittering on the surface but corrupt underneath
-agrarian society of small producers transformed into urban society dominated by industrial corporations
-first measure passed by Congress to prohibit trusts
named after Senator John Sherman
-authorized federal government to institute proceedings against trusts in order to dissolve them
Supreme Court rulings prevented federal authorities from using the act for some years
-only effective use was against labor union
held by courts to be illegal combinations
-William Jennings Bryan
1. sub-treasury plan
2. government ownership of railroads
3. recognition of laborers to form unions
4.free coinage of silver
5. graduated income tax (16th Amendment)
6. government control of currency
-Bryan lost 1896 election campaign
end of Populist Party
-wanted price of farm goods to increase
establish fair railroad rates
Grange Movement
-2 million Eastern Europeans immigrated to US
mostly Catholic
-2 million Jews fled from political massacre in Eastern Europe
-restrictive immigration policies in 1920s based on 1890's proportion of foreign-born European nationalities
-Yellow Journalism
exaggerated stories to sell newspapers
originally fought with US to liberate
Dewey captures Manila
-sinks Spanish fleet
July 4, 1946 independence
-established equal trading rights in China for all nations
John Hay
-helped increase American trade in China
-felt white people caused problems by denying rights to black people
-talented black students should get an education
wrong to expect citizen to earn their rights
-founded NAACP
-8-hour work day
-direct election of US senators
-public ownership of railroads/communications systems
-writers specializing in indepth investigate stories of political schemes
-Henry Demarest Lloyd 1881 wrote "Atlantic Monthly" attacking practices of Standard Oil Co. and railroads
-Irish immigrant Samuel McClure founded "McClure's Magazine" in 1893
-Jacob Riis published "How the Other Half Lives"
City Government
-1900 Galveston, TX first to adopt commission plan for gov.
voters elect heads of city departments
-1923 more than 300 cities adopted manager council plan
-President Woodrow Wilson
-John Scopes taught evolution in Tennessee school
entire nation on his side
violated state law
convicted but later overturned
-still illegal to teach evolution but rarely enforced
-Fundamentalist enforce teachings of the Bible
Senator McCarthy
Missile Crisis
-historian of the University of Wisconsin
-1893 delivered paper to meeting of American Historical Association in Chicago
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
end of frontier marked end of one of the most important democratizing forces in American life
-much of the farming and grazing land was now taken
in the future it would be difficult to acquire valuable land for little or nothing
-permanent international organization to oversee world affairs and prevent future wars
assembly of nations that would meet regularly to debate means of resolving disputes and protecting the peace
-authority would rest with a nine member executive council
US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy
-Henry Cabot Lodge proposed amendments to the League
Wilson refused
rejected by the Senate
-Secretary of the treasury Andrew Mellon
wealthy steel and aluminum tycoon
devoted to working for substantial reductions in taxes on corporate profits, personal incomes, and inheritances
-Congress cut them all by more than a half
-worked with President Coolidge after 1924 on series of measures to trim the modest federal budget
retire half the nation's WWI debt
-protect peace without accepting active international duties
-French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, asked US to join an alliance against Germany in 1927
Secretary of State, Frank Kellogg proposed mutlilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy
-14 nations signed the agreement in Paris in 1928
48 other nations later joined
-rested on the "moral force" of the world opinion
World War I
-President Wilson decided that only a national draft could provide the needed men
-Selective Service Act
draft brought 3 million men into the army
2 million joined various branches of armed services voluntarily
together formed American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
World War II
-American economy experienced a severe postwar recession
-middle class responded with fearful, conservative hostility
453,000 farmers lost land and 5 million people lost jobs
-Americans worried about job security as thousands of veterans returned home
arduous working conditions continued to be a source of discontent --> strikes
-black soldiers had expectation of some social reward for their service
-concerns about communist threat
-Henry Ford produced first of the famous cars that reshaped American life
-introduced moving assembly line in his automobile plants in 1914
cut the time for assembly
raise wages and reduce hours of workers
cut base price of Model T form $950 in 1914 to $290 in 1929
-faced with choice between active efforts to stabilize the world and attempts to isolate the nation from it
-support for isolationism emerged
Wilsonian internationalists grew disillusioned with the League of Nations and its inability to stop Japanese aggression
powerful business interests had tricked US into participating in WWI
-1935 Roosevelt asked Senate to ratify treaty to make US a member in World Court
expand US symbolic commitment to internationalism without increasing responsibilities
isolationist opposition defeated treaty
-Neutrality Act of 1935, 1936, and 1937 designed to prevent a recurrence of the events that had pressured US into WWI
-1935 law established mandatory arms embargo against victim and aggressor in any military conflict
empowered president to warn Americans that they travel on ships of warring nations at their own risk
-1936 law renewed these provisions
-1937 law established cash-and-carry policy
belligerents could purchase only nonmilitary goods from US and had to pay cash and carry goods away on their own vessels
-Gertrude Stein referred to the young Americans emerging from WWI as a "lost generation"
personal alienation
-repudiation of Wilsonian idealism, restoration of "business as usual", growing emphasis on materialism and consumerism suggested the war had been a fraud
-Ernest Hemingway expressed generation's contempt for the war in his novel "A Farewell to Arms" (1929)
-Sinclair Lewis was the first American to win Nobel Prize in Literature
"Main Street" (1920)
lashed out at small town, modern cit, medical profession, and popular religion
-racially segregated facilities are permissible under 14th amendment if they are equivalent
separate but equal
legal status to segregation
-segregated schools are inherently unequal and prohibited by 14th amendment
overturned Plessy v. Ferguson idea of separate but equal
Little Rock Nine first to integrate
1. economic boom
2. buying on margin/installment buying
3.Bull Market
stock market in which stock prices were steadily increasing as a result of speculation
4. Hawley-Smoot Tariff
highest tariff in history
5. stock market crash and bank runs
-1942 100,000 Japanese Americans on West Coast left homes to reside in internment camps by the government
Executive Order of 9066
suspected of being spies
-women took vacated jobs by men serving in military
5 million worked in industrial jobs, shipment plants, and defense plants
paid below men
Rosie the Riveter
Women in the Workforce
Japanese Internment
-zoot-suit riots
Mexicans and whites battle in LA
-1943 dozens of African Americans died in race riots in NY and Detroit
-Senator of Wisconsin Joseph McCarthy
-search for communists and their sympathizers by falsely accusing people
-Loyalty Review Boards
House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC)
conducted investigations of gov. employers thought to be communists
-people in gov., teachers, actors, and others blacklisted
-huge surge in baby births
need for more schools
sets consumer trends
-1957 Soviets launched first orbit around earth
-US rockets designed to duplicate Soviet achievement failed repeatedly
blamed schools and inadequate instruction in science
-Soviet Union ahead of US in science
-Education changes
National Defense Education Act
-US creates NASA
-1962 US planes discovered Russians building underground sites in Cuba for launching missiles that could reach US
-Kennedy's Naval Blockade of Cuba
Khrushchev removed missiles from Cuba in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade
US removes missiles from Turkey
-telecommunications hotline established between Washington D.C. and Moscow
-1963 US and Soviet Union with 100 other nations signed Nuclear Test Ban Treaty to end nuclear testing
The Great Society
-passing Kennedy's reforms
Medicare: health insurance programs for 65 and older
Medicaid: gov. paid health care for poor and disabled
Elementary and Secondary Education Act: providing aid to poor school districts
Civil Rights
-1964 passed Civil Rights Act making segregation illegal
-Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ended racial discrimination in employment
-1964 24th amendment abolished poll tax
Fair Deal
-1949 urged Congress to enact national health care insurance, federal aid to education, civil rights legislation, funds for public housing, and a new reform program
-conservatives blocked most reforms except increase of more workers under Social Security and increase in min. wage
Republican Congress
Korean War
-1951-1953 Korea divided at 38th parallel by victors of Japanese War
Soviets occupied N. Korea and US occupied S. Korea
-1949 both armies withdraw leaving North in Communist hands and South under conservative nationalist Syngman Rhee
-North invades South and US forces sent by UN help S. Korean army with General McArthur
McArthur called for war and bombing on China after soldiers drove UN out of N. Korea but recalled by Truman for insubordination
-Marshall Plan: program to help Europe revive economy and strengthen democratic gov.
-NATO: recommended US join a military defense to protect W. Europe
Cold War
-centered around Communist Soviet Union and US that was short of an armed conflict with nuclear weapons
-Truman misunderstood and overreacted to Russia's need to secure its border
administration weak on communism
Berlin Airlift
-June 1948 Soviets cut off all access by land to Berlin
-Truman dismissed plans to withdraw form Berlin and rejected idea of using force to open roads through Soviet controlled eastern zone
US planes flew in supplies to people of W. Berlin
-May 1949 Soviets opened highways to Berlin, ending blockade
-Truman Doctrine in response to:
communist led uprising against gov. in Greece
Soviet demands for control of Turkey's Dardanelles
-asked Congress in March 1947 for $400 million in economic and military aid to assist " free people" of Greece and Turkey against "totalitarian regimes"
gained bipartisan support from Republicans and Democrats in Congress
Wagner Act
Taft Hartley Act
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
-opposes female employment
-man's ability to support family gives him pride
-collective bargaining, 8 hour day, bread and butter union (higher wages)
-federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions
-1947 required union leaders to swear that they were not communists but later found unconstitutional
-Committee for Industrial Organization
-served as president of United Mine Workers of America and founder of Committee for Industrial Organization
skilled workers
-guarantees basic rights of private vector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining and take collective action (strike)
-authorized fed. gov. to institute proceedings against trusts in order to dissolve them
-AFL anti-immigration
-worked as unskilled industrial laborers
-attacked Jim Crow laws and lynching
-edited an influential black newspaper and earned his fame
antislavery propaganda
-bosses of social welfare agencies ran for office and won due to influential votes
Machine Politics
more loyal to association than political party
Boss Tweed
-1875 Public Health Act allowed health inspectors to inspect and recommend demolition for improvement
-people lived in overcrowded quarter, threat of Cholera, dumped sewage out the window
Stratification of Classes
-Bourgeoisie owned means of production
-working poor employed in low skilled jobs with lowest pay and do not earn enough to rise out of poverty
-underclass unemployed who came from families that have been poor for generations
Court Packing
-FDR picked new, liberal court justices that would pass his bills
rejected by Congress
Good Neighbor Policy
-Pan-American Conferences: pledged to never intervene in internal affairs of Latin America
-1934 nullified Platt Amendment in Cuba, granting it independence but US keeps Guantanamo Bay
-permitted Britain to obtain all US arms needed on credit
100 Days Legislation
-experimented with different methods to ease Depression
success in winning congressional approval made FDR the most effective president in dealing with Congress in first 100 days
Different Than Hoover
-Hoover believed in rugged individualism and "hands-off" approach
-FDR's relief, recovery, reform
alphabet soup
-consumerism: large-scale buying on credit
-rock and roll music originated in gospel and blues tradition of African Americans
-suburban growth resulted as desperate need for housing arose after the war
Levittown: project of 17,000 homes on Long Island
-Arms Race between US and Soviet Union
Cold War threatened nuclear war
-government maintains power over those who seek to rebel in order to keep a peaceful home
-construction of interstate highways and schools, distribution of veterans' benefits, and increased military spending contributed to economic growth
Gulf of Tonkin
-as a result of supposed attack on American ship by Vietnam forces, this act gave President Johnson power to take any steps necessary in Vietnam
President Johnson
-took a major role in escalating the Vietnam War and first president to send troops
President Nixon
-created "Vietnamization" to train native people to fight their own war
began to take troops out of Vietnam
-antiwar movement that protested the war and sought out the end of the war and peace
student sit-ins in colleges and universities
draft card burning
-sit-ins: protests by black college students who took seats at "white only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served
-Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: Supreme Court ruling reversed the policy of segregation
separate can never be equal
one year later ordered the integration of all public schools with deliberate speed
-Little Rock Nine first to integrate schools
-Martin Luther King Jr. was a leader of the African American Civil Rights Movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who became known for his advancement of blacks through nonviolent disobedience
-March on Washington 1963: 200,000 demonstrators converged on Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr.King's speech and celebrate Kennedy's support for civil rights movement at the
-Malcolm X converted to the Nation of Islam while in jail
beliefs became basis of the Black Power Movement
fight violence with violence
-Black Panthers against peaceful protest and use of violence when necessary
favored militant ideals
-anti establishment movement symbolized the youthful social upheaval through belief in ideals of democratic society
Woodstock, hippies, drugs
Women's Movement
-Equal Pay Act established in 1963
required employers to pay men and women equally for doing the same work
-"The Feminine Mystique" written by Betty Freidan described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women are being denied equality
-Roe v. Wade established that women have the right to legally get an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy
-Students for a Democratic Society organized anti-war marches and protests
organized "teach-ins"
-Pentagon Papers revealed confidential details about the war's conduct
-Washington Naval Treaty
treaty among major nations that had won World War I
agreed to prevent arms race by limiting naval construction
-negotiated at the Washington naval Conference in Washington D.C.
peacetime draft
-Selective Training and Service Act began process by which 15 million Americans were inducted into the armed services
-opposed a welfare system which would give money to people who had no job
wanted to create jobs through government programs
-rugged individualism: belief that all individuals can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal
-shantytowns called Hoovervilles were common as places to live for the homeless
evidence of Hoover's lack of effort in helping the common people
-no government subsidies
-government gave public lands to railroad companies in exchange for building tracks in specific locations
railroads expanded into new territories and settlers followed
value of the land would increase
-industry able to transport goods faster and more efficiently
land grants
Tori Hanley
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