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Natural Gas

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silvia rad

on 4 November 2015

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Transcript of Natural Gas

How do we use natural gas in every day life?
By: Silvia Radossi, Matilde Rossi
& Giorgia Marchesan
Natural Gas
Natural Gas may seem useless instead it is really important,
we use it every day to cook food, heat buildings, dry clothes,
heat water and even to help produce energy.
It is also used for outdoor lights, barbecues and fire pits.
Natural Gas is really important in our every day life
because it permits us to many things.

An example of how we use natural gas is when we cook we use the fire on the stove, but from where does the fire come from?
Well, here there is the use of Natural Gas, which helps make fire.
So, as you can see Natural gas plays a major role in our everyday life, even if we don’t realize.
Natural gas is found in 33 states in the U.S.A.
The dark blue states on this map show
you where large amounts of natural gas are extracted.
In the medium blue states, moderate amounts
of natural gas are extracted.
The light blue states, is where just
a little natural gas is extracted.
Natural gas is not extracted at all in
the states that are white.

Where can we find Natural Gas?
Natural gas is transported into house and other places, through pipelines.
If all of the pipelines of United states would be connected they would reach the moon and return backwards on Earth. Natural gas can also be compressed into liquid and used as fuel for tanks and buses.
How Does it Benefit/Harm the Environment?
Natural gas is an extremely important source of energy
for reducing pollution and keeping clean the environment.

Emissions from the Combustion of Natural Gases
Natural gas is the cleanest of all fossil fuels. It is primarily made up of methane.
The main products in the burning of natural gases are carbon dioxide and water vapour, the same compounds we release when we breathe.
On the other hand, fossil fuels like coal and oil release much more harmful chemicals when they are burned.
These chemicals include carbon , nitrogen oxide(NOx)and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Coal and fuel also release tiny particles, like ashes, that do not burn or dissolve but are carried in the atmosphere, polluting the air.

Natural gas, being the cleanest of all fossil fuels, contains less harmful chemicals like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ash or particle matter, than the other fossil fuels.

All this can help reduce environmental issues like:
-Greenhouse Gas Emissions
-Smog, Air Quality and Acid Rain
-Industrial and Electric Generation Emissions
-Pollution from Transportation Sector- Natural Gas Vehicles.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Our atmosphere contains some natural and artificial gases called “greenhouse gases”. They are made up of methane , carbon dioxide and other chemicals.
Most of them are natural but some of them were created because of the pollution. The  greenhouse gases help regulate the temperature on earth’s surface by trapping the heat. An increase of these gases could completely trap the hot air and cause global warming, which leads to incredible disastrous environmental effects.
The principle greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide, according to EIA, 81.2% of greenhouse gas emissions comes from the combustion of fossil fuels, that release carbon dioxide.
Natural gas instead has a very low level of carbon dioxide. It emits almost 30% less than oil and 45% less than coal.
However natural gas contains methane that traps heat almost 21 times more than carbon dioxide. Anyway scientists have discovered that the increase in uses of natural gases would decrease carbon dioxide and that the methane wouldn’t overweigh the carbon dioxide and causes a greater damage.

-In fewer words the increase of natural gas use would decrease carbon dioxide
emission, preventing and helping to stop global warming.

Smog is formed by a chemical reaction of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, evaporating organic compounds and heat from sunlight. 
Vehicles, smokestacks, paints and solvents, all release high amounts of smog.
Because natural gas emits low levels of nitrogen oxide it could be used in electrical generation sectors to reduce the nitrogen level. It could be particularly use din the summertime when natural gas demand is the lowest and smog problems are the greatest.

Another issue is the air quality. Earth’s air contains ash and other airborn particles, but an increase in the use of natural gases would decrease this problem because it contains to particle matter
Acid rain is an environmental issue that damages crops, forests, wildlife populations and respiratory or other human illnesses.
Acid rain is formed when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide react with water vapor and other chemicals in the presence of sunlight.
The principal source of acid rain is coal-fired plants. An increase of natural gas would decrease the use of this fuel, causing less acid rain emissions.

Air Quality
Acid Rain
Industrial and Electric generation Emissions
Emissions from industries and electric utilities contribute to the environmental issues. Coal fire plants emit 67 % of sulphur dioxide, 40 % of carbon dioxide, 25 % of nitrogen oxide and 40% of mercury.
-The use of natural gas to power both industrial boilers and the generation of electricity could benefit the environment because it would:
Release fewer emissions:
Natural gas combustion releases less nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide and mercury emissions. It could be used in place of or instead of other fossil fuels like coal and petroleum that damage the environment.

Reduce sludge:
Coal fire plants that use scrubbers (machines to clean and reduce sulphur dioxide) emit other dangerous chemicals. If natural gas would be used instead of coal it would eliminate the need of scrubbers and reduce the sludge or pollution of industrial power plants.
This process involved injecting an amount of natural gas in coal and other fuels. This reduces the emission of nitrogen oxide of 50 to 70 & and the reduction of sulfur dioxide of 20 to 25%.
The use of both electricity and heat can increase the energy efficiency of industrial boilers and electric generation systems, decreasing the combustion of fuels. Natural gas could be sued for new cogeneration applications.
Combine cycle Generation:
This consists in generating electricity and capturing wasted energy to reuse. This emits fewer chemicals, and has greater energy efficiency. Natural gas fired combined cycle generations init can be up to 60% energy efficiency when coal and oil generations and only 30% efficient.
Fuel Cells:
Fuel cells are sophisticate devices that use hydrogen to generate electricity. Natural gas being a hydrogen rich source of fuel can be uses and eventually reduce chemical emission.
Pollution from the Transportation Sector- natural gas Vehicles
Natural gas can be used in vehicles instead of gasoline and diesel powered car and trucks. According to EPA, vehicles operating with natural gas have reductions of 90-97% in carbon monoxide and 25% in carbon dioxide.
What is Natural Gas?
Natural Gas is a fossil fuel, the other being coal and oil. Fossil fuels are the remains of ancient plants and animals buried deep in earth and for this reason it is a non-renewable resource.
Methane is the main ingredient of Natural Gas. Methane does not smell, though it is extremely toxic and for this reason we put inside a smelly substance which advise you something is going wrong and you don’t need to smell it.
Natural gas contains also: ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane and heptanes.

Economy (Business Overview)
Natural gas is an extremely valued resource in today’s society. It is an extremely important role in the economy and it generates a great commerce in the USA and all around the world.
The market of natural gas generally depends on the supply and demand. When the demand rises, the prices increase because producers need money to extract the natural gas. However when prices rise people don’t want to buy so much of this source and so the demand decreases. The supply and demand of natural gas various very often. It is a function of how much people want and how much money producers spend to get this resource.
Natural gas, along with oil, supports over 9 million jobs in America . It is one of the jobs that employs most people. For example it is useful in agriculture. Farmers use fertilizer made from natural gas. Even businesses rely on oil and natural gas to make and sell their products and provide their services. It also offers jobs consisting in marketing, processing, extracting and producing natural gases.
-Below are some statistics (based on EIA data for the year 2007) on the makeup of the natural gas industry-
•Producers - There are over 6,300 producers of natural gas in the United States .
•Processing - There are over 530 natural gas processing plants in the United States , that process almost 15 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and extract over 630 million barrels of natural gas liquids (2006).
•Pipelines - There are about 160 pipeline companies in the United States , operating over 300,000 miles of pipe. 180,000 miles of these pipes are intersected allowing natural gas to be transported everywhere.
•Storage - There are about 123 natural gas storage operators in the United States , which control approximately 400 underground storage facilities.
•Marketing - The status of the natural gas marketing segment of the industry is constantly changing, as companies enter and exit from the industry quite frequently.
•Local Distribution Companies - There are about 1,200 natural gas distribution companies in the U.S. , with ownership of over 1.2 million miles of distribution pipe.
Here are some other statistics on the operation impact of the oil and natural gas industry in 2007.
In Texas there are 1,772,335 employers and the labor income or salaries is of 140, 941 million dollars.
In Oklahoma there are 348,627 employers and the salary is of 22,550 million dollars.

How Does It Affect the Environment?
Like I said before the use of natural gas benefits the environment by keeping it clean. However the process of getting natural gas from the underground is environmentally destructive. Because of this, industry members have undertaken a number of initiatives.
More precise and efficient technique to get the natural gas can require less wells and drilling. Since drilling damages the environment fewer wells will prevent the negative effects of the environment.
Provide cleaner operations to drill and extract the natural gas can cause less leaks, groundwater contamination, spills and pollutants.
“New drilling technologies allow for the use of smaller drilling rigs, and decrease the surface impact of drilling for natural gas. Horizontal drilling allow for less surface impact as a greater number of wells may be drilled from a single location.”.

History of Natural Gas
Natural Gas was discovered many centuries ago by ancient Greeks, Persians and Indians. They where bemused by the springs off fire released by the cracks in the ground, when they where struck by lightning. Sometimes they built temples around these flames created by natural gas to venerate and idolize them.
About 2,500 years ago, Chinese understood that natural gas could be used. They piped it from wells and burnt it to evaporate seawater to create salt.
In 1816 it was first used by the Americans to illuminate streets in Baltimore with Gas lamps. In 1821, William Hart dug the first working well for natural gas extraction in Fredonia, New York. It was 27 feet deep. IN 1858 “The Fredonia Gas Company” was the first natural gas company to be opened.
By the 1900 natural gas was found in 17 states. Today natural gas is 21.6% of the energy we use.

William Hart
Gas Lamp
How does Natural Gas create usabel energy and is it practical?
Sources Used:

Natural Gas creates usable energy when it’s burnt. When it’s burnt it produces a lot of heat that can be used for many things. For example natural Gas power plants use the heat to power combustion turbines or to heat up water, which produced steam to power steam Turbines.
Natural Gas can be used in many ways to produce electricity using natural gas. Natural gas is used to heat up water and produce steam, and then the steam is used to turn a turbine that creates electricity.
Natural Gas is practical because when it’s heated up it produces fewer emissions than other fossil fuels. To use natural gas a company needs to find it by drilling a well and extracting it, and then they burn it to produce heat and use the heat for many things.

Natural Gas in the Future
Right now natural gas is considered the resource of the future because it is becoming cheaper. Since it is the cleanest of all fossil fuels its use increase could benefit the environment by reducing the amount of chemicals and preventing global warming and other environmental issues. For now it can be used, but since its non-renewable, it won't last forever.
Natural Gas Molecule
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