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Causes and Effects of the Chinese Revolution

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Biak Tial

on 9 April 2013

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Transcript of Causes and Effects of the Chinese Revolution

Biak Tial Causes & Effects & Analysisof the Chinese Revolution Causes The Chinese Revolution of 1949 was caused by an effort by the Soviets to expand communism. Prior to the Revolution, China had been under Manchu rule, and due to the resistance to adopting foreign innovations, the Chinese lost many of the qualities that made them Chinese. To an extent, the Manchu rulers were more Chinese than the Chinese. Because of this rule, China was unable to modernise itself. Chinese economy was dominated by agriculture and crafts were practiced with primitive and outdated techniques. Heavy revenue burdens were imposed on the peasants who worked. The process of modernisation began in 1911 when the Manchu emperor was overthrown by followers of Sun-yat-sen. He wanted to build a modern, unified and prosperous China and forged cooperative alliance with the Communist party for this purpose.However, after Sun-yat-sen’s death in 1924, the empire broke up into small states under the rule of warlords who were usually previous army generals. Under rule of the warlords, taxes were being demanded in advance and led families to poverty. They controlled a larger part of the nationalist government that was established previousl Among the warlords was Chiang-kai-shek who began reuniting the empire, but the Communists under Mao-tse-tung resisted the unification of China under Chiang-kai-shek. He was able to chase the Communists from their urban homes to the mountains where they were no longer a threat. However, under Chiang, the Kuomintang government that was established by Sun-yat-set grew increasingly inefficient and corrupt. The KMT government spent a lot of time looking after the interests of the industrialists, bankers, landowners and made no effective efforts to organize mass support. Factory conditions were terrible and child labour was widely prevalent and workers were not paid their rightful wages. The Chinese society was hierarchical and the upper classes enjoyed higher standards of living and peasant poverty increased as a series of droughts and bad harvests occurred in the the 1930s resulting in famines. Aid from America was given to the officials due to the corruption of the KMT administration. The administration also paid for wars by printing extra money which resulted in an inflation. As Chiang attempted in reorganizing China, the Japanese annexed Manchuria and in 1932 attacked Shanghai and seized Jehol. Until 1937, Chiang was able to keep a truce between the Japanese until Japan gave full scale efforts in conquering China. Although by this time, half of China had fallen to the Japanese, they were able to stabilise the lines from 1938-1945. The Chinese were treated poorly and during the war and the Communists maintained a series of truces with the Japanese. In August 1945, the Soviet Union invaded and conquered Manchuria, seizing all the factories, goods and rolling-stocks. They also deployed most of Mao's Communists into Manchuria and conscripted much of the population to increase his numbers.They left behind massive amounts of military equipment for him. The KMT had rapidly lost support, the communist gained popularity. Not only did they organize effective guerilla campaigns against the Japanese, they restrained land policy which varied according to the needs of particular areas. They freed many areas from control of the warlords and as they did all of this, they enforced Communist ideals and won people over to their side. Chiang’s forces moved into Manchuria after the Soviet’s left. After the revolution of 1945, China was left with a strong centralized government under the communist party of China set up by Mao Zedong and Zhon Enlai. Along with a new government, China also held extreme poverty and starvation along with incredible population growth. The territories under the landlords were freed and incorporated into the Chinese republic. The communist declared themselves ruling party of China and ignored Taiwan. For this reason, Taiwan is not a separate country but they have two separate governments. As a result, the Communist party’s rule was a disaster and lead to the death of millions while they were isolated from the rest of the world. It wasn’t until the 1970s until new leaders gained control and started making more rational and economically sound policies. The People’s Republic of China took Taiwan’s seat in the United Nations and eventually opened up to foreign countries and allowed more free-market trade. The Chinese government opposes independence of Taiwan and China is remains communist as the Communist Party doesn’t want to lose control. Effects Analysis The origins of the revolution were rooted in Marxist beliefs. Mao and the Communist Party wanted to create equal status among the people, eliminating the bourgeoisie. They wanted to increase industry and make that the focus of the economy. The revolutionary process began after they defeated the KMT and Nationalists. Russia supported the Communists while the United States supported the Nationalists, but they did not have large effects on the war. The Cultural Revolution encouraged Maoists beliefs of equality between the classes. The Red Guards supported Mao and a personality cult grew around Mao as well. The objectives of the Revolution were not met as the Great Leap failed (mentioned in Timeline below) to create an industrialized economy. Classes remained and failed to establish communes.
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