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Energy consumptions in Building

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K.L Maheshwari

on 21 September 2013

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Transcript of Energy consumptions in Building

Building Materials
Energy Consumptions in Buildings
Capacity to do work
Capacity to produce any change in the present system
Energy Can Be neither created nor can be destroyed But it can be only converted from one form to another
Major Energy Consumptions
Types of Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Sound Energy
Chemical Energy
Heat Energy
By K.L Maheshwari
Air Conditioning
Vernacular Architecture
Energy in Indian Context
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An object that has motion whether it is vertical or horizontal motion has kinetic energy.

There are many forms of kinetic energy
Vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion)
Rotational (the energy due to rotational motion)
Translational (the energy due to motion from one location to another)
Potential energy is the energy of an object or a system due to the position of the body or the arrangement of the particles of the system
Potential energy is often associated with restoring forces such as a spring or the force of gravity.
The action of stretching the spring or lifting the mass is performed by an external force that works against the force field of the potential.
This work is stored in the force field, which is said to be stored as potential energy.
If the external force is removed the force field acts on the body to perform the work as it moves the body back to the initial position, reducing the stretch of the spring or causing a body to fall.
It is a form of energy associated with the vibration or disturbance of matter.
Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds (atoms and molecules). Chemical energy is released in a chemical reaction, often in the form of heat. Such reactions are called exothermic. Batteries, biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal are examples of stored chemical energy.

For example, when an explosive goes off, chemical energy stored in it is transferred to the surroundings as thermal energy, sound energy and kinetic energy
Heat is energy transferred from one body to another by thermal interactions.
Heat is not a property of a system or body, but instead is always associated with a process of some kind, and is synonymous with heat flow and heat transfer.
Heat flow from hotter to colder systems occurs spontaneously, and is always accompanied by an increase in entropy
The transfer of energy can occur in a variety of ways, among them Conduction, Convection and Radiation
It is the transfer of heat from one part of a substance to another part of substance without appreciable displacement of molecules forming the substance
Maximum heat transfer through conduction happens in solids.
It is transfer of heat within a fluid by mixing of one portion of the fluid with another
Convection is only possible in fluid medium and is directly linked with transport of medium itself

Radiation is the transfer of heat through space by energy carrying electromagnetic waves
Radiant heat passing through air does not warm the air through which it travel
All objects absorb and radiate heat
The amount of radiant heat given off in a specified period of time is dependent on both the temperature as well as the extent and nature of the radiating object
A hard, brittle substance, typically transparent or translucent, made by fusing sand with soda, lime, and sometimes other ingredients
Types of Glasses
Float Glass
Low Emissivity Glass
Reflective Glass
Thermal Conductivity i.e U- Factor is reciprocal of Thermal Resistivity i.e R- Factor.

Unit of U-Factor is Btu/h °F ft2

For designing the building materials should be made such that it has lower U-Factor and Higher R-Factor
The emissivity of a material (usually written E or e) is the relative ability of its surface to emit energy by radiation. It is the ratio of energy radiated by a particular material to energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature. A true black body would have an E = 1 while any real object would have E < 1. Emissivity is a dimensionless quantity.
Float Glass
It is a normal float-clear glass into whiche melt colorants are added for tinting and solar-radiation absorption properties. This reduces heat penetration in buildings. Colored glass is an important architectural element for the exterior appearance of facades. It is also used in interior decoration (doors, partitions, staircase panels, mirrors).
Low Emissivity Glass
It is a clear glass that has a microscopically-thin coating of metal oxide. This filters the sun's heat while allowing a considerable amount of light to enter. Low-E glass is a type of insulating glass, which increases the energy efficiency of windows by reducing the transfer of heat or cold through glass. That means in cold temperatures your Bulding stays warmer, and in the hot temperatures it stays cooler by rejecting the sun's heat and damaging rays reducing air conditioning and artificial lighting costs.
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
It is the ratio of total transmitted solar heat to incident solar energy, typically ranging from 0.9 to 0.1, where lower values indicate lower solar gain.
These Indices are dimensionless numbers between 0 and 1.
These properties are widely used in cooling load calculations
Visible Transmittance
Visible transmittance is the amount of light in the visible portion of the spectrum that passes through a glazing material. A higher VT means there is more daylight in a space which, if designed properly, can offset electric lighting and its associated cooling loads
Reflective Glass
Reflective window glazing is commonly used in hot climates where solar heat gain control is critical.
Reflective Glass reduces heat and light with a metal oxide coating that provides a mirrored effect.
In addition to daytime privacy ,ultraviolet damage is minimized
Reflective Glass provides a dramatic visual impact and is often used as an architectural design element.
Air Conditioning in any building consumes 50 to 70% of total electric power supplied to it
Thus utilizing energy efficient systems in Air Conditioning helps to save a great amount of energy in overall energy consumption of an Building
Air Conditioning
Why so much Energy is required in Airconditioning????
We all know that
flow of Heat happens From Higher Temperature Body To lower Temperature Body
Space Cooling
Let us take an
that temperature of atmosphere is 43 C and Temperature of Building is 24 C.
Now conventional flow of energy(Heat) will take place from Atmosphere to Building
But we have to maintain the temperature inside at 24 C. For that we have to remove the additional heat which is entering inside the building
For that we have to use an Heat Pump

Heat Pump???
A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a heat sink against a temperature gradient.
Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy
the direction of spontaneous heat flow.
Heat Pump For Cooling
Heat Pump For Space cooling is An Normal Air Conditioning Cycle as Shown Below
As you can see heat is Carried away from lower temperature Body to Higher Temperature Body Which is an opposition to Spontaneous Heat Flow hence Work is Required For the same
Heat Pump For Heating
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight.
Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) Should be used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings.
This can save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which represents a major component of energy consumption in buildings.
Optimum Usage of Natural Light and Artificial Light is important because Natural Lighting inside an building adds in certain amount of Heat inside the building.
Thus when Space cooling is required inside the building this Heat which accumulates due to Natural Lighting has to be thrown out of the building
Thus Such Building Materials should be selected which can Helps in getting more Day lighting and less Heat Inside
Here Low emissivity Glass can be selected as they allow more Light and less Heat inside the Building.
Turning Towards
LED is Light Emitting Diode
Which is basically a Semi Conductor which is customized to give off Light When Electricity Is Passed Through It

LED bulbs and diodes have an outstanding operational life time expectation of up to 100000 hours.
This is 11 years of continuous operation, or 22 years of 50% operation.
If you leave on the LED fixture for 8h per day it would take around 20 years before you’d have to replace the LED bulb.
Space Heating
Let us take an
that temperature of atmosphere is 0 C and Temperature of Building is 24 C.
Now conventional flow of energy(Heat) will take place from Building to Atmosphere
But we have to maintain the temperature inside at 24 C. For that we have to add the additional heat which is leaving outside the building.
Red Clay Bricks
Fly Ash Bricks
Red Clay Bricks
These are normal bricks made of clay Which are Heated in a Kiln at high temperature to make them durable
These types are widely used across India Due to their Low cost and High Durability
The chemical composition contains Silica,Alumina,Magnesia Lime,Alkali and organic matters in Vrious Proportions
Fly Ash Bricks
As the name suggests, this are Bricks made up of Residues Developed During Combustion of Coal Used in Thermal Power Plants.
These Bricks possess good Insulation Properties
(lower U-Factor)
than Red bricks
Moreover it solves the Problem of disposal Of Large amount of Fly ash which was Previously Dumped In the Ground
From Very Ancient Period of Mankind Stones are used as Primary Building Materials For Construction Purpose
Natural Stone available in the vicinity to Construction Site was used along with mortar made up of Limestone and other important Constituents.
One can see The
made up of stones used in Ancient
Indian Architecture
These Jalis not only Facilitates Natural Lighting But also helps for Natural Ventilation
The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 225.133 GW as of May 2013, which is world's fifth largest.
Of these about 87.55% comes from Fossils Fuels(Coal,oil,etc) and 12.45% From Renewable sources.
In these Coal Fired Plant account For 57% of India's installed electricity capacity,renewal hydro power accounts for 19%, renewable energy for 12% and natural gas for about 9%.
Energy In Indian Context
The Overall loss In Indian Electricity Supply is about 32%, compared to world average of less than 15% in Year 2010.

Due to rapid economic expansion, India has one of the world's fastest growing energy markets and is expected to be the second-largest contributor to the increase in global energy demand by 2035

The International Energy Agency estimates India will add between 600 GW to 1200 GW of additional new power generation capacity before 2050
As We all know Vernacular architecture is a category of architecture based on localized needs and construction materials, and reflecting local traditions and
As we all Know that One of the most significant influences on vernacular architecture is the macro climate of the area in which the building is constructed.
Thus to Design an Energy Efficient Building one needs to understand the Local Climatic conditions.
Buildings in cold climates invariably have high thermal mass or significant amounts of insulation. They are usually sealed in order to prevent heat loss, and openings such as windows tend to be small or non-existent
Buildings in warm climates, by contrast, tend to be constructed of lighter materials and to allow significant cross-ventilation through openings in the fabric of the building.
Thus Striving To Save Energy requires Optimum Design a great Attention and Finally a Nobel Heart!!!!
Building Services And Energy Efficiency

Why Should We Study Building Services???
Because Buildings Consume about 20% of total Electricity
so what??
Lets Look at what Cost Electricity is produced
Energy Production
Okay so all of this is to save
Mother Earth
, Right???
It is to save ourselves and our offspring before we get extinct

Remember Nature turns into
whenever it has to create balance on earth
In today's Scenario Power ( Electricity) is Produced Largely in 3 Ways
Thermal Power Plants( Coal fired)
Nuclear Power Plants
Hydro Electric Power Plants
All of these Creates Air, Water and Land Pollution
Air Pollution
Coal-fired power plants emit large quantities of toxic air pollutants such as lead, arsenic and particulate matter, and are one of the largest sources of man-made mercury pollution
These pollutants infiltrate our water supplies, damaging wildlife and humans, and are a major trigger of asthma and respiratory ailments.
In the areas where Thermal Power Plant are Located the mercury problem is so widespread that every year one in six women of childbearing age has mercury levels in her blood high enough to put her baby at risk.
Moreover every year about 13,000 people die in these region due to pollution done by Power Plants.
Across The Globe about 1/3rd(33.33%) of Green House Gases are emitted by Power Plants
Nuclear Power Plants are Very dangerous if they become unstable
Land&Water pollution
We are often told that Hydro Electric Power Generation does not Create much Pollution
But For its setup large amount of area has to be deforested for creation of Dam
This In turn Creates Ecological Imbalance
Moreover the Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plant also Pollute Land and Water
Residues of Coal After its combustion are dumped into the ground which inturn creates Pollution
Should we stop using Energy???
No we should use it Efficiently
2.Energy Efficient
1. Long Life
Today's most efficient way of illumination and lighting is LED which converts 80% of supplied energy into Light and 20% in heat
While traditional Incandescent bulbs convert only 20% of supplied energy into Light
3.Ecologically Friendly
LED lights are free of toxic chemicals. Most conventional fluorescent lighting bulbs contain a multitude of materials like e.g mercury that are dangerous for the environment.

LED lights contain no toxic materials and are 100% recyclable, and will help you to reduce your carbon footprint by up to a third. The long operational life time span mentioned above means also that one LED light bulb can save material and production of 25 incandescent light bulbs. A big step towards a greener future!
4.Low-Voltage Usage
A low-voltage power supply is sufficient for LED illumination.
This makes it easy to use LED lighting also in outdoor settings, by connecting an external solar-energy source and is a big advantage when it comes to using LED technology in remote or rural areas.
LED illumination produces little infrared light and close to no UV emissions.

Because of this, LED lighting is highly suitable not only for goods and materials that are sensitive to heat due to the benefit of little radiated heat emission, but also for illumination of UV sensitive objects or materials such a in museums, art galleries, archeological sites etc.
5. Zero UV Emissions
6. Durable Quality
LEDs are extremely durable and built with sturdy components that are highly rugged and can withstand even the roughest conditions.

Because LED lights are resistant to shock, vibrations and external impacts, they make great outdoor lighting systems for rough conditions and exposure to weather, wind, rain or even external vandalism, traffic related public exposure and construction or manufacturing sites.

In Existing Buildings, Excessive use of materials,Irrespective of their efficiency in regulating indoor environment has often resulted in high energy consumptions, leading to many environment problems.
This is because high energy is utilized in of cooling, ventilation and Lighting
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