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Human Experimentation

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Alex Zhao

on 30 April 2015

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Transcript of Human Experimentation

Human Experimentation
Pros and Cons
Experimental Treatments
In recent times most clinical trials are taken in the forms of experimental medications as a way to test experimental drugs or as the last straw for many people in dire conditions
History
Pros
With human testing you can see direct and instant results on humans
Cons
Experimental Medicines
Experimental Brain Cancer Treatment
Death Row Prisoners/Asylums
Many people today are leaning more for those on death row to be used as human experiments before their execution
Nazi Experiments
Freezing Experiments

Battle Wound Simulation

High Altitude Testings

This led to the development of the Nuremberg Code


Recent/ Present Day
The Nuremberg Code
The Nuremberg Code has 10 rules that any experiment on a person has to follow.
Unpredictable side effects can lead to worsening condition rather than a benefit
Patients and subjects may experience unfavorable conditions
You can gain early access to many medicines that may potentially save many lives
This also allows you to see how it affects people with a certain condition if it's conducted on people with the same condition.
The testing period may take a toll on the person leading to extra stress
May lead to death
Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
In recent times experiments on humans are taken in the forms of clinical trials as a way to quickly test experimental drugs but there have also been questionable experiments on people as of recent times.
Though not to recent the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is one of the most well known cases of human experimentation in the past century
1.) "The Voluntary consent of the human subject is essential..."
2.) "The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or study."
3.) "The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study..."
4.) "The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury".
5.) "No experiment should be conducted, where there is no prior reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except in experiments where the physicians also serve as subjects"
6.) "The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment"
7.) "Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury or death"
8.) "The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons..."
9.) During the course of the experiment, the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end, if he has reached the physical or mental state, where continuation of the experiment seemed to him to be impossible
10.) During the course of the experiment, the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe, in the exercise of good faith, superior skill and careful judgement required of him, that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury. disability, or death to the experimental subject.
The most recent times where humans were forced to be experimented on were during World War II and during the Khmer Rouge Regime
During these two time periods many war crimes and unethical experiments were performed on people in order for the scientist to get the "best" results possible
Many of these experiments ended with death.
The experiment took place from 1932 to 1972 in Georgia with the subjects being 400 African American men and the PHS told them that they were being treated for "bad blood" a general term for many sicknesses but in reality they were used to check the progression of syphilis and were never given the proper medication even when it was commercially available
In the past, patients in insane asylums were used as test subjects. One experiment was the MKUltra experiment.
Recently a experimental treatment for brain cancer was developed it involved injecting the tumor with polio in order to rid the body of a brain cancer called glioblastoma.
Our Opinion
Human Experimentation is testing where the subjects are humans. It's a way people can get more accurate information on the effects of whatever experiment or research is being conducted
Forcing death row prisoners into being human experiments would violate the Nuremberg code.
Is it ethical to use human subjects in experiments if it has great rewards but also high risks?
Saractinib is a decade old experimental drug that was meant to help fight cancer however it failed completely to do that and since it was deemed safe by the previous tests on the cancer the developers saw possible benefits in fighting Alzheimers in the compound so now the drug is being used in a clinical trial for Alzheimers
How its seen in media
Full transcript