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Module #1: History, Approaches to Psychology and Research Methods
Transcript of Module #1: History, Approaches to Psychology and Research Methods
Approaches to Psychology
Psychology is truly a mystery of the Mind.
The universe is enormous but so is the MIND - and just as mysterious.
1879 - 1920
Birth of Modern Science
Buddha, Confucious, India (yoga, meditation)
Socrates, Plato and the scientist....Aristotle
The mind is distinct from the body
How does the immaterial mind communicate with the body?
Conclusion: The animal spirit
Brain cavities have the animal spirit that flows through nerves sending messages to the body.
Detailed Summary of entire History:
Father of Modern Science
The Failures of the Mind:
Errors in Cognition (cause and effect errors)
We perceive patterns in random events. We remember to confirm!
The Mind at Birth is a BLANK SLATE
OUR EXPERIENCE WRITE UPON OUR BLANK SLATES
BACON + LOCK = MODERN EMPIRICISM.
Empiricism: The idea that knowledge originates in experiences and that science should therefor rely on observation and experimentation.
Birth of Modern Psychology
Wundt and Structuralism
James and Functionalist
What were the criticism?
emotions, memories, will power, habits
and moment to moment streams of thought.
Multiple Theories Still
Marriage of Psychology and Neuroscience
Role of Evolution
Symphony of Reality
Role of Diversity
Springs out of biology and philosophy
Ivan Pavlov: Physiologist
Jean Piaget: Biologist
Watson then Skinner:
The scientific study of human behavior
Rogers and Maslow:
Current environmental influence on our growth potential
Our minds processes and ability to retain (brain activity linked with mental activity)
Science of behavior and mental process.
How do we separate OPINION from science?
We DO science and check our biases at the door.
Finding something that has happened makes it seem inevitable.
Example: "Out of sight v. Absence makes the heart".
"Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future" Neils Borh
Good ideas are like good inventions, once they are created, they seem obvious.
Self-prediction errors 15% of the time
Or 100% 12-21-12...
"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers."
Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
"The concept is interesting and well-formed, but in order to earn better than a 'C,' the idea must be feasible."
A Yale University management professor in response to Fred Smith's paper proposing reliable overnight delivery service. (Smith went on to found Federal Express Corp.)
"Stocks have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau."
Irving Fisher, Professor of Economics, Yale University, 1929.
"Louis Pasteur's theory of germs is ridiculous fiction".
Pierre Pachet, Professor of Physiology at Toulouse, 1872
The Scientific Attitude
Humble community that scrutinizes competing ideas.
Critical Thinking as a Scientist and Student
Disengage for the conversation
Often distracted by phone, noises, friends.
Thinking about being somewhere else (lunch, friends, school sucks, etc.
In order for them to learn they must work, cram, repeat, rewrite, memorize, repeat and repeat some more. All of their time studying is spent outside of the school day. They don't understand why they can't learn it quick.
Actively engages the brain during all learning (reading, writing and listening).
Questions materials often inside their brains.
Relates what the author is saying to what they already know or think they know.
Finds relevant examples from previous learning and makes connections creating a 'schema' of the theme and content.
Writes stuff down independently when their brain thinks about something that is relevant in class....they write it down!
Will always have the advantage! The scale tips in their favor. These are the true scientists - the ones that will not only get good grade but be able to apply knowledge gained in school to their career...these are the game changers. BE ONE.
SET OF PRINCIPLES
A GOOD THEORY IS TESTABLE
Enables us to test then reject, revise, revisit, rethink which may give a new direction to the research.
BE AWARE OF YOUR BIASES
PROCESS OF MAKING THE FUZZY CLEAR AND MEASURABLE
CLEARLY DEFINING AND EXPLAIN WHAT YOU ARE DOING (PLAN FOR EXPLORATION)
THE CASE STUDY, THE SURVEY, NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION, THE EXPERIMENT
CORRELATION, CORRELATION COEFFICIENT, SCATTERPLOTS, CAUSATION, ILLUSORY CORRELATION
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY, VARIATION, INFERENCES, STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Unit #1 & 2: Weeks 1 & 2
Replication is the main goal
Falsification is the only way to truly know?
Australians believe that all swans are black.......
Overall lax standards
Criticism: My Lobotomy NPR - Amazing Story!
"The human understanding, from its peculiar nature easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds"
Experiments on selective memories: we remember what confirms our beliefs.
Certain human natures are presumed to be innate only because men cannot remember when they first learned them! Can you think of assumptions about human nature that we assume are innate?
Introspection as a tool for gathering data
Study Suggestion: Create a timeline of the history of psychology that represent the major events/people that have help create modern psychology
KEY FEATURES OF SCIENCE?
1. Empirical Evidence
5. Hypothesis testing
Be Weary this semester:
1. Never draws conclusions from observations only
2. Always consider alternative explanations
3. Never accept anything at face value
4. Be aware of perspective
"No amount of observations of a white swan can allow the inference that all swans are white, but the observation of a single black swan is sufficient to refute that conclusion"
Finance wizard writes you a letter and makes a prediction that a stock goes up.
Another letter claiming it will be higher at the end of the month
He then gives the correct prediction 6 months in a row.
Should you invest?
Concerns about Psychology as a Science
Ethical Consideration: Experiments and the human subject.
Blurring research, diagnosis and therapy
Clinical opportunism: little distinction exists between gathering knowledge and dispensing knowledge.
Read the headlines but no one reads the replication failures.
We don't stop questioning
Overall take-aways. Think - what is the BIG IDEA of this talk?
What are some of the 'a-ha' moments in this Ted talk? The moments when you were like really? or Wow? or I didn't know that?
Link to Reading. What specific content from unit one introduction to psychology did she discuss?
What questions did this spark?
Formal Definition: Formal study of the mind - systematic approach to understanding and curing mental conditions.
Goal: understand human behavior with a secondary goal of treatment of behaviors deemed abnormal.
practical applications to life.
the structure elements of the mind
Should be objective and studied without reference to mental process.
Emphasis on mental health
Interdisciplinary connection between brain activity and cognition (perception, thinking, memory, language).
William James, Mary Witham Calkins, Margret Flow Washburn.
The compliment of John Brinks
Critical Thinker: A person that looks critically at the world. Very general definition.
What does this look like? Sound like? What do critical thinkers actually do?
Good and the Bad?
Good and the Bad?
How our intuition stumbles:
1. If you drop a bullet off a table of 3 feet high and fire another one across a football field - which hits the ground first?
2. A ball rolls down a spiral track, the end of the track curves left, what path does it take when it leaves the tract?
3. A wooden cube is 1 in long on each side. How many cubes for a cube 2 inches long?
Create an operational definition for :
We search for what confirms our preconceptions.
Assuming that each card has a triangle on one side and a circle on the other, which card or cards need to be turned over to test this statement: "Every card that has a black triangle on one side has a red circle on the other?"
Illusory Correlation Bias
Causation is directional, correlation is symmetrical so when correlation points to causation, we need to establish a direction.
How do we correct our own errors?
Good and the Bad?
Survey says.....RANDOM SAMPLING!
Case Studies say......DO NOT MAKE GENERALIZATIONS FROM VIVID CASE STUDIES
Relationship says......DON'T CONFUSE CORRELATION WITH CAUSATION.
PS: Know your statistics....
IT IS A PERCEIVED BUT NON-EXISTENT CORRELATION
WE MUST CONDUCT
What should I be doing during a video?
Get out your vocabulary lists or your notes from the chapter.
Link what is said in the video to what you have read, learned discussed.
Link to what you think we will be studying.
WHAT QUESTIONS DO YOU HAVE ABOUT YOUR MIND and how it works?
Question of the Day: What color is a swan and how do you know?
A scientific theory is not your everyday theory:
A scientific theory explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events after years and years of scientific experimentation, review and replication.
Problem: Our brains do not think scientifically
massive losses of brain tissue early in life may have minimal long-term effects.
within days, newborns can recognize their mother’s odor and voice.
brain damage can leave a person able to learn new skills yet unaware of such learning.
diverse groups—men and women, old and young, rich and middle class, those with disabilities and those without—report roughly comparable levels of personal happiness.
electroconvulsive therapy (delivering an electric shock to the brain) is often a very effective treatment for severe depression.
sleepwalkers are not acting out their dreams.
our past experiences are not all recorded verbatim in our brains; with brain stimulation or hypnosis, one cannot simply “hit the replay button” and relive long-buried or repressed memories.
most people do not suffer from unrealistically low self-esteem, and high self-esteem is not all good.
opposites do not generally attract.
What do you think it means to think
critically and to have a scientific attitude?
But what happens when I show you this
Examples of your confirmation biases?
The Good v. Bad: Experimentation
Linking the Big Question with Research and Science
Teds: Longest Twin Study