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Pauline Sambilay

on 5 March 2014

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Background of the Study
Drinking water is very important for an organism to survive, to avoid dehydration, to generate ATP or GTP before its energy can be used by the human body.
Statement of the Problem
1.) What is the effect of malunggay seeds on the physic-chemical characteristics of Marikina River?

2.) What is the effect of malunggay seeds on the microbiological characteristics of Maikina River?

3.) Is there a significant difference on the physical and microbiological on water samples before and after the application of malunggay seeds?

Dry the seeds 3 days in direct sunlight. 2- Discard any soft or discolored seeds.
Remove the dark outer skin or hull, then grind the seeds to a powder.
Add it to the water you want to clear in the treatment container.
Collection of Malunggay Seeds
Treatment / Procedure
Chemical Analysis
The water samples were analyzed for 7 parameters: temperature, pH, total hardness, total dissolved solids, acidity, alkalinity, and turbidity.
Microbiological Analysis
Pour Plate Method

The Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) is a procedure and a microbial method for estimating the number of level heterotrophic bacteria in water that uses colony formation on culture media to approximate the levels of heterotrophic flora.

All counts were reported as colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The CFU is the unit used for reporting bacterial density.
Negative: The malunggay seeds would have a bad effect which causes contamination on the process of water purification.
Scope and Limitation
This study was conducted at St. Joseph Catholic School, Proj. 3 Quezon City This study was determined the chemical and microbiological changes of Marikina river water.
Physico-chemical Analysis
increases as the concentration increases.
Batalla, Ma. Bernadette A.
Depamallo, Princess Divine C.
Esteban, Christian Jessie G.
Manzano, Miguel Ray Patrick E
Pandela, Joshua Junel J.
Sambilay, Pauline Nikhail A.
Santiago, Albert Carlo R.
Santos, Paulo Richard G.
Sarmiento Rafael Joshua P.
Positive: The malunggay seeds would have a good effect on purification, because malunggay seeds contain a anti-microbial substance.
7 parameters tested namely temperature, pH, total hardness, total dissolved solids, acidity, alkalinity, and turbidity. Methods of analysis used were titration for acidity, alkalinity and total hardness; turbidity for total dissolved solids (TDS); and tester for turbidity.
The study could take hours before seeing the result whether it is purified or not. A certain amount of time to conduct the experimentation is needed.
Malunggay seeds were collected within Metro Manila. A total 500 grams of dried malunggay seeds were collected.
Collection of water samples
Water samples were collected from Marikina river using sterilized container (5 Liters).
Stir quickly for about thirty seconds.
stir the water slowly and regularly for five to ten minutes.
Cover the treatment container and let it settle for 2 to 3 hours.
Filtration Process
After the water has settled for at least 2 hour, the water is ready for secondary treatment, such as disinfection.
Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique

The multiple-tube fermentation technique is a three-stage procedure in which the results are statistically expressed in terms of the Most Probable Number (MPN).
Presumptive Stage

A Series of Lauryl Tryptose both primary fermentation tubes were inoculated with graduated quantities of water sample.
Confirmed Stage

The confirmed stage is used on all primary fermentation tubes showing gas formation during 24 hours to 48 hours periods.
Completed Test

The completed tests -t he formation of gas in the fermentation tube and the presence of gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria in the agar culture were considered a satisfactory completed test demonstrating the positive presence of coliform bacteria in the analyzed sample.
is the buffering capacity of a water body, it neutralizes acids and bases in order maintain the pH of the water.
refers to the quantity of divalent ions such as calcium and magnesium. Calcium is necessary for bone formation, blood clotting and other metabolic reactions. A high hardness reading could result from high magnesium concentrations with little calcium present.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
represents the total concentration of dissolved substances in water. A high concentration of TDS indicates the presence of harmful contaminants such as irons, sulfate, manganese and arsenic.
is the cloudiness of a liquid caused by individual particles that are generally invisible to our naked eye. Turbidity indicates if the water is clear or not.
value of a water source is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity. If the pH value is low or below 7.0 which is the neutral value, the water is said to be acidic.
Microbiological Analysis
Fecal Coliforms
are those bacteria found in our environment, including the feces of a man. The presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water may indicate a possible presence of harmful, disease-causing organisms.
Total Coliform count
, the control has a higher number of bacteria than the 3 other water samples that have been treated with malunggay seed powder.
Heterotrophic plate count
, the number of heterotrophic bacteria decreases as the concentration of malunggay seed powder increases.
Physico-chemical Analysis
Microbiological Analysis
decreases as the dosage of moringa oleifera increases

Total Hardness
, it also has an increasing trend because high total hardness may indicate that there is a high magnesium concentration

Total Dissolved Solids
showed that as the concentration of moringa oleifera increases the TDS also increases this may because moringa oleifera has a Cationic Peptides

increases as the concentration of moringa oleifera increases this may because particles inside the water sample are not properly settled down and because filtration process is done in the experiment.

, it can be observed in table 1 that it has a decreasing trend as the concentration of moringa oleifera increases,
Presence of
Fecal Coliforms
, it can be observed in table 2 that the control and the treatment is verified that there is a fecal coliform present in water, however, the presence of bacteria is still positive but this bacteria are harmless.

Total Coliform Count
, the bacteria present in water is reduced as the concentration of moringa oleifera increases, as well as the
heterotrophic bacteria
, it has also a decreasing trend as the concentration of moringa oleifera increases.

chemical analysis
, Hardness, Total Dissolved solids, turbidity, and acidity increases except for pH and Alkalinity.

microbiological analysis,
malunggay seeds reduced the total number of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria as the concentration of malunggay seed powder increases.
Malunggay seed is effective in reducing the total number of bacteria present in river water.
Decantation process must be done to both chemical and microbiological specimens instead of filtration in order to achieve good results, especially in Turbidity.
Further research studies about water purification using malunggay seed powder must be employed in order to provide a secure and easy means of potable water especially in rural areas.
Difficulty in purifying water because it is expensive and it is not available on those rural areas
The seed of moringa contains active coagulating agents that are characterized as diametric cationic proteins. The seeds also have antimicrobial activities that are utilized for waste water treatment.
Since moringa is very abundant in our country especially in rural areas, we can now easily purify water without spending more money and by this water purifier, we can be more secured.
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