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“Man is by nature a social animal; an individual who is unso

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Aniqa Mukarram

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of “Man is by nature a social animal; an individual who is unso

The Father of true paper-T’sai
In A.D. 105, a court official named T’sai under the Chinese Emperor Ho Ti made paper from hemp, old cloth, and mulberry bark mixed with water. This mixture was formed into a sheet, the water was squeezed out and the sheet allowed to dry in the sun.
T’sai’s thin, yet flexible paper with its fine, smooth surface was known as “T’sai Ko-Shi”, meaning “Distinguished T’sai’s paper” and he became revered as the patron saint of papermaking.
made its true push westward in 751AD when the Tang Dynasty was at war with the Islamic world.
During a battle on the banks of the Tarus river, Islamic warriors captured a Chinese caravan which happened to include several papermakers. They spirited them away to Samarkand, which soon became a great centre for paper production.
Gradually papermakers made their way further west through the Muslim world - to Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo.
Finally, when the Moors from North Africa invaded Spain and Portugal, they brought the technology with them so papermaking entered Europe in the 12th century.
In 1151, the first paper mill was built in Spain.
The notion of paper being used as a practical everyday item did not occur until the 15th Century.
German inventor, Johann Gutenburg perfected movable-type printing press and printed his famous Bible in 1456. He not only spread the word of Christianity, but also sparked a revolution in mass communication.
The birth of the modern paper and printing industry is commonly marked from this date.
Printing technology rapidly developed and created an ever increasing demand for paper.
Nile river valley in Egypt, a marsh grass called Cyperous Papyrus flourished.
The Egyptians cut thin strips from the plant's stem and softened them in the muddy waters of the Nile. These strips were then layered in right angles to form a kind of mat. The mat was then pounded into a thin sheet and left in the sun todry. The resulting sheets were ideal to write on.
It is from papyrus that the word paper comes from.
In 1798, paper went from being handmade to machine-made.
Nicholas Louis Robert, a clerk at a papermaking mill in France, invented a large hand-cranked machine that could produce a seamless length of paper on a wire mesh with squeeze rollers at one end.
It was later sold to, perfected and marketed by the Fourdrinier brothers.

Nicholas Louis Robert
Full-scale industrialisation, innovation and specification lead to new paper grades and paper uses.
19th Century
The paper production process became fully automated: from the preparatory and pulp production stages through to the papermaking
The second half of the 19th century was marked by the enlargement of the web width, an increase in working speeds due to improvements to various machine parts.
20th Century
The age of mass-produced paper was launched.
Plentiful, low-cost paper and paperboard were
important to the Industrial Revolution.

Origins of Paper
The Father of true paper-T’sai
Spread of Papermaking
Refinement in Papermaking
Further development
Mass production
The Growth Years

Englishman Hugh Burgess’s idea of chemical pulping digesting wood with solutions of various chemicals.
Also in the 18th century, Thomas Cobb invented a process to dye pulp in a similar fashion as textiles, which added color pigment to paper pulp.

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