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Transcript of Avoiding Plagiarism
Deciding Whether to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize
"Quote texts when the wording is worth repeating or makes a point so well that no rewording will do it justice, when you want to cite the exact words of a known authority on your topic, when an authority's opinion challenges or disagrees with those of others, or when the source is one you want to emphasize" (480).
"Paraphrase sources that are not worth quoting but contain details you need to include" (483).
"Summarize longer passages whose main points are important but whose details are not" (486).
"As a writer, you need to acknowledge any words and ideas that come from others - to give credit where credit is due, to recognize the various authorities and many perspectives you have considered, to show readers where they can find your sources, and to situate your own arguments in the ongoing conversation" (491).
"Using other people's words and ideas without acknowledgement is plagiarism, a serious academic and ethical offense" (491).
"As a writer, you need to acknowledge any words and ideas that come from others - to give credit where credit is due, to recognize the various authorities and many perspectives you have consideredm to show readers where they can find your sources, and to situate your own arguments in the ongoing conversation" (p. 491)
Plagiarism translates to kidnapping.
"Plagiarism is often committed unintentionally - as when a writer paraphrases someone else's ideas in language that is close to the original" (495).
using another writer's words or ideas without in-text citation and documentation
using another writer's exact words without quotation marks
paraphrasing or summarizing someone else's ideas using language or sentence structure that are too close to the original
How to avoid plagiarism? - page 495
"To avoid plagiarism, take careful notes as you do your research, clearly labeling as quotations any words you quote directly and being careful to use your own paraphrasing and sentence strucutres in paraphrases and summaries. Be sure you know what source material you must document, and give credit to your sources, both in text and in a list of references or works cited" (495).
Acknowledging Sources - page 492
Arguable statements and information that may not be common knowledge
The opinions and assertions of others
Any information that you did not generate yourself
Collaboration with and help from others
Taking Notes - page 478
Sources that don't need acknowledgement - page 493
information that most readers are likely to know
information and documents that are widely available
material that you created or gathered yourself
use a computer file, note cards, or a notebook, labeling each entry with the information that will allow you to keep track of where it comes from - author, title, and the pages or the URL.
take notes in your own words, and use your own sentence patterns (paraphrase)
If you find wording that you'd like to quote, be sure to enclose it in quotation marks to distinguish your source's words from your own.
label each note with a subject heading to relate it to a subject, supporting point, or other element within your essay.
"Quoting a source is a way of weaving someone else's exact words into your text. You need to reproduce the source exactly, though you can modify it to omit unnecessary details (with ellipses) or to make it fit smoothly into your text (with brackets). You also need to distinguish quoted material from your own by enclosing short quotations in quotation marks, setting off longer quotes as a block, and using appropriate signal phrases" (480)
"When you paraphrase, you restate information from a source in your own words, using your own sentence structures. Paraphrase when the source material is important but the original wording is not. Because it includes all the main points of the source, a paraphrase is usually about the same length as the original" (483).
"A summary states the main ideas in a source concisely and in your own words. Unlike a paraphrase, a summary does not present all the details, and it is generally as brief as possible. Summaries may boil down an entire book or essay into a single sentence, or they may take a paragraph or more to present the main ideas" (p. 486).
"And you must recognize that plagiarism has its consequences. Scholars' work will be discredited if it too closely resembles another's. Journalists found to have plagiarized lose their jobs, and students routinely fail courses or are dismissed from their school when they are caught cheating - all too often by submiting as their own essays that they have purchased from online "research sites" (495).