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Chapter: 7 From Indio To Filipino
Transcript of Chapter: 7 From Indio To Filipino
Revolts and Rebellions
Failure of The Revolts
4 main Reasons
Factors that Gave rise To Filipino Nationalism
Abuses of the Spaniards
Opening of the Philippines to the World Commerce
Spread of Liberalism which gave birth to the new Filipinos (The Illustrados)
Early Filipino Revolts are categorized into:
Abuses of the Spaniards
Desire to retain the lost of freedom
Led by former political or religious leaders
Religious intolerance of Spanish authorities
Led by religious leaders
Spaniards used a Christianized members of a converted ethnic community to evangelized other unconverted groups
Resistance to Spanish - imposed institutions
The oppressive spanish institutions that caused Filipinos to revolt were:
Indulto de Comercio
Monopolies and tobacco liquors among others
April 1764 - Tagalog regions were marked by peasant unrest w/c started in the Hacienda Town of Silang in Cavite.
Maginoos of Silang disputed fraudulent land surveys.
Oct. 1745 - agrarian revolt spread to Batangas.
- Tagalog rebellion failed
- Leaders were either put to death or banished
1822 - another revolt broke out in Cavite headed by Luis de los Santos ("Parang") and Juan Silvestre ("Juan Upay").
There was forced labor and exaction of tribute in the form of firewood for use in the -Imus Church construction which aggravated the situation more
So-called “tulisanes” (bandits) were really troubled peasants
Parang and Upay temporarily surrendered to authorities through amnesty in 1828 but resumed their uprising in the 1830s.
Parang was executed in 1835.
mid-1860s – Cavite experienced another resurgence of agrarian trouble against land abuses of the friars
Casimino Camerino – Imus farmer unjustly labeled “El Tulisan” by the Spaniards
-Compania de Guias de la Provincia de Cavite
-Camerino became the colonel of the force
-Camerino was executed by the garrote vil implicated in the Cavite Mutiny
1869 – Camerino was granted amnesty by Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre
Starting with the reestablishment of Fort Pilar in Zamboanga(1718), the Spaniards failed to conquer the Moros(1750s).
In revenge for Spanish acts of reducing Moro captives to slavery and destroying their homes.
4. Lack of discipline, resources and organization
1. Lack of unity and cohesion
2. The rising was not widespread
3. No common aims and ideals
Filipino Nationalism: Decelerators
The lack of communication and transportation structures.
Presence of travel passports (papeletas de permiso) and other permits (caritas de radio).
Linguistic differences and absence of a common language.
Spanish policy of divide et impera (divide and rule).
Indios were not united in words and in deeds
Indios only became a “Filipino” during the las years of the Spanish regime in the late 1890s
Divide et impera quelled also foreign mercenaries like Macabebes (Yaqui Aztec) merdekes from Maluku Japanese.
Nationalism – product of the French Revolution in the 18th century
Filtered through the Philippines only in the 19th century
No nationalism feeling during the pre-colonial
During Spanish rules:
People called Filipinos only applied to the Spaniards born in the Philippines (insulares)
indigenous were derogatorily called indios
The Philippines in World Commerce (1834-1898)
Filipino Nationalism: Accelerators
The transfer of technology to the Philippines.
The Filipino finally woke up.
Opening of the Philippines to world commerce.
Clase media (middle class).
Impact of European liberalism
The administration of Carlos Maria de la Torre.
Effect of the secular-regular conflicts.
Cavite Munity of 1872.
Opening of the port to international trade in 1834.
1. Sual (Pangasinan), Iloilo and Zamboanga Port (1855)
2. Cebu Port (1860)
3. Legazpi and Leyte Port (1873)
Mail service between Manila and Cavite started at 1839.
Travelers in the 1880 in Manila
Rise of The Clase Media
The clase media rose from the economic boom.
European Liberalism and Carlos Maria de la Torre
Felipe Buencamino, Paciano Rizal and Gregorio Sanciangco.
Liberal – Open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values.
John Locke – Two Treatises on Government (1689)
Jean Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract (1762)
Glorious September Revolution of 1868
Governor-General Carlos Maria de la TorreHe abolished press espionage and proclaimed freedom of speech.
Juventud Escolar Liberal
According to Pardo de Taverna...
"Although the laws recognized no difference between the various races, nevertheless from the beginning of the nineteenth century the Spaniards claimed superiority over the Filipinos and so taught their children"
Townspeople were obliged to remove their hats when a Spanish passed (especially if they had an official position
If a priest were to walk by, it is customary to kiss his hand aside from removing their hats
No Indian is allowed to sit on at the table with a Spaniard, even if the Spaniard is a guest in the Indian's house.
The addressed Filipinos with the pronoun "thou"
Although many of the Spaniards marries pure blood native women, the wives were always looked on in society as belonging to an inferior class
Regular Secular Conflicts
In this day and age, regular priests (Clerks Regular) and Secular Priests are one and the same thing.
There is a conflict of perception.
In history, there may have been jealousies between Clerks Regular (ordinary, diocesan clergy, and Dominicans, Jesuits, Franciscians, Benedictines and so forth).
La Algarada Cavitena