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English Collocations in Use

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by

Dalpino Mariana

on 14 October 2014

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Transcript of English Collocations in Use

"English collocations in use"
What is a collocation?
INTENSIFYING ADVERBS
A collocation is a pair or group of words that are often used together. They sound natural to native speakers but for students they are difficult to guess.
Some collocations are fixed or very strong, for example "take a photo" - whereas others are more open, like "stick to/keep on the rules".

COMPOUNDS
"English Collocations in Use"

by Michael McCarthy and Felicity O'Dell
Beltramo Cindi
Burlon Florentina
Dalpino Mariana
Martincevich Mélani
Pisanelli Juan Manuel
Lengua I - Profesora Silvia Schnitzler
GROUP:
Cambridge
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO LEARN COLLOCATIONS?
They can:
Give the most natural way to say something. For example:
"strictly forbidden"
is more natural than
"strongly forbidden"
.

Give you alternative ways of saying something. For example: instead of saying
"very cold and very dark"
, you may say
"bitterly cold and pitch dark"
.

Improve your style in writing. For example: instead of saying
"poverty causes crime"
, you may say
"poverty breeds crime"
; or
"substantial meal"
instead of
"big meal"
.
FINDING COLLOCATIONS
THERE ARE TWO MAIN WAYS IN WHICH YOU CAN FIND COLLOCATIONS:
You can train yourself to notice them whenever you read or listen to anything in English.

You can find them in any good learners dictionary.
RECORDING COLLOCATIONS
The best way to record a collocation is in a phrase or sentence showing how it is used.
learning collocations
You should regularly:
Revise what you want to learn.

Practice using them in contexts which are meaningful for you personally.

Learn collocations in group to help you fix them in your memory.
COLLOCATIONS
vs.
Units of meaning formed with two or more words.

Can be written:
Separately - For example: Blood pressure, science fiction, nail polish.
Linked by a hyphen - For example: Six-pack, half-baked.
As one word - For example: Housewife, lawsuit, basketball.

In some cases, the meaning of the compound can be guessed by knowing the meaning of the individual words. For example: car park.
IDIOMS
Groups of words in a fixed order that have a meaning that cannot be guessed by knowing the meaning of the individual words.

For example: "pass the buck" means to pass responsibility for a problem to another person to avoid dealing with it oneself.
TYPES OF
COLLOCATIONS
NOUN + VERB
NOUN + NOUN
VERB and EXPRESSIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS
VERBS + ADVERBS
REGISTER
Collocations suggest a particular register.
SPOKEN ENGLISH
NEWSPAPER ENGLISH
BUSINESS ENGLISH
ADJECTIVE + NOUN
ADVERBS + ADJECTIVES
Major problem
Bright colour
The economy boomed/expanded
A product is launched
A sense of pride
A pang of nostalgia
A surge of anger
Burst into tears
Swelling with pride
Feel with horror
Place gently
Smile proudly
Whisper softly
Pull steadily
Happily married
Fully aware
Peacefully unaware
I'm bored stiff
You badly need a haircut
I'll have a think about it
Give me a ring
To submit a tender
To go into partnership with somebody (to agree to start or run a business with somebody)
Start up a business
Computer factory to axe jobs (to make staff redundant)
Airline slashes prices (cuts prices drastically)
Government spending will rocket this year
Police cracks down on speeding (starts dealing with it in a more serious way)
Cyclists must dismount here (get off their bicycles)
Passengers must not alight from the bus whilst it is in motion (they must not get off the bus)
Trespassers will be prosecuted (people who go on to somebody's land or enter their building without permission will be sent to court)
Please dispose of unwanted items in the receptacle provided (throw away)
FORMAL ENGLISH
FEELINGS
AND
EMOTIONS

FEELING ANGRY
FEELING HAPPY
Blissfully happy (to be very or extremely happy)
Lasting happiness
The happy couple (a standard way to referring to a newly married couple)
A happy occasion
FEELING SAD or UPSET
Desperately sad
Deeply depressed
Great sadness
Sad occasion
Bitterly/deeply disappointed
Let me down badly
Express my disappointment
To show feelings
Huge disappointment
Increasingly anxious
Worried sick
Mounting anger
Widespread condemnation aroused feelings of...
To lose my temper
Seething with anger
Highly emotional
Emotional response
Emotional involvement/impact
Emotional wreck (informal)
Instead of saying "VERY" or "VERY MUCH", we may say:
HIGHLY
EXTREMELY
It collocates with:
(un) likely
Unusual
Successful
Competitive
Profitable
Effective
Controversial
Recommended
"HIGHLY" generally collocates with words that have positive connotation (except "controversial"
It collocates with all the opposite adjectives of the previous one, except "recommended".
Example: "It is highly unlikely that I finish my work on time"
ABSOLUTELY/UTTERLY
They collocate with:
Ridiculous
Stupid
Impossible
Wrong
Alone
Appalled
Convinced
Devastated
Miserable
"ABSOLUTELY" and "UTTERLY" collocates with adjectives that have a very extreme meaning, where we cannot use "VERY"
For example:
Absolutely exhausted - Very exhausted
Very tired - Absolutely tired
Often (not always) these words have a negative connotation.
For example: The whole area was utterly devastated after the earthquake
BITTERLY
It collocates with:
Disappointed
Present
Criticize
Regret
Complain
Cry
Weep
"BITTERLY" carries a feeling of deep sadness used slightly more in writing than in conversation.

Example: "I was bitterly disappointed when I failed the exam"
DEEPLY
It collocates with:
Ashamed
Concerned
Shocked
Committed
Moved
Affected
Hard (of feelings)
Regret
Care
Religious
Unhappy
"DEEPLY" collocates mainly with words associated with feelings.

Example: "Our professor was always deeply committed to her students"
RIDICULOUSLY
It collocates with:
Cheap
Expensive
Easy
Low
High
Long
Short
Small
Large
Early
"RIDICULOUSLY" suggests something extreme which seems unbelievable or unreasonable.

Example: "The restaurant was ridiculously expensive"
STRONGLY
It collocates with:
Opposed
Influence
Believe
Deny
Recommend
Support
Suggest
Feel
Argue
Object
"STRONGLY" collocates with verbs, particularly those which relate to having an opinion.

Example: "I would strongly recommend that you learn a foreign language"
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