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THE TWELVE APOSTLES

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by

Jessica David

on 11 November 2015

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Transcript of THE TWELVE APOSTLES

Although, the 12 apostles is a unique Australian icon, that should be protected for many more centuries to come, it is a natural landmark, weathering naturally, providing home for marine life. When the apostles fully erode away, a reef will eventually be created, and new stacks will begin their formation again.
You must see the stunning view of the Twelve Apostles, before time passes on, weathering away its fading beauty, starting its cycle again.
Should we preserve the twelve apostles?
Formation
Erosion
$1.24
Wednesday, November 11, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
What is the Twelve Apostles?
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
Deposition
Ten-twelve million years ago tiny skeletons of marine animals, like molluscs, bryozoans and brachiopods were deposited on the sea floor. Thick layers of skeletons were cemented together to form limestone rock.
THE TWELVE APOSTLES
Types of weathering affecting the 12 apostles:
Where is it located?
The twelve apostles are a collection of limestone stacks. Although called the twelve apostles, there are only 8 limestone columns left standing. The twelve apostles are important to the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land, because they maintain a connection to their ancestral lands and waters.
Physical weathering
Chemical weathering
The Twelve Apostles were formed by weathering. 5 million years ago, much of the limestone that was once covered by water, was exposed to air and weathering had begun.
Process: Stages of formation
1. Cliffs are attacked by the sea - cliffs are undercut by waves pounding cliffs - caves are formed
2. The caves widen into arches
3.Tops of the arches collapse- stacks are the only remnant of the cliff to remain
Eventual Result:
Stacks will be undercut and fall into the ocean to eventually form a reef.
Due to wave action eroding the cliff faces, existing headlands are expected to become new limestone stacks in the future

The twelve Apostles is located off the shore of Port Campbell, by the Great Ocean Road in Victoria, Australia. The area was designated a national park in 2002 called the 'Twelve Apostles national Park'. The national park covers 7500 hectares, and runs along 17km of stunning coastline.
- Deposition
- Erosion
- Water
- Rain Water
The soft limestone eroded away first due to the constant attack of waves, which eventually was sculpted into vertical cliffs. Varying hardness of the limestone caused its jaggedness. Every year there is approximately 2cm of erosion at the base of the limestone pillars. It was once called London bridge', because of its rapid coastal change, due to weathering. In 1990, the arch closest to the land collapsed. Several tourist who were trapped, were rescued by helicopter.
- Gases: (oxygen, carbon dioxide, iron oxide)
-Temperature change
- abrasive sand and gravel - from water
Definition (Erosion):
The process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.
2002 before the collapse
2012 after the collapse
Bibliography
1. Wikipedia 22 October 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Twelve_Apostles_(Victoria), (accessed 28 November 2015)
2. Visit Melbourne 2015, http://www.visitmelbourne.com/Regions/Great-Ocean-Road/Things-to-do/Nature-and-wildlife/Beaches-and-coastlines/12-Apostles, (accessed 28 November 2015)
1. Australian Government geoscience Australia 2013, http://www.ga.gov.au/corporate_data/75055/Rec2013_016.pdf, (accessed 28 November 2015)
Coming to visit the 12 Apostles today!
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