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The "isms" of the 19th and 20th centuries
Transcript of The "isms" of the 19th and 20th centuries
centuries Socialism Capitalism An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market. Any of various theories or systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy. Industrialism Conservatism A political philosophy or attitude emphasizing respect for traditional institutions, distrust of government activism, and opposition to sudden change in the established order. Liberalism Nationalism Militarism Racism Romanticism Realism Feminism Social Darwinism Anti-Semitism Zionism Modernism Impressionism Post-impressionism Imperialism Utilitarianism Isolationism Communism Chartism Anarchism Utopian Socialism Republicanism A political theory founded on the natural goodness of humans and the autonomy of the individual and favoring civil and political liberties, government by law with the consent of the governed, and protection from arbitrary authority. A 19th-century Protestant movement that favored free intellectual inquiry, stressed the ethical and humanitarian content of Christianity, and de-emphasized dogmatic theology. A 19th-century Roman Catholic movement that favored political democracy and ecclesiastical reform but was theologically orthodox. The significance of Socialism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans began to have devotion to the interests or culture of their nation. The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals. Major cause of World War 1 A policy in which military preparedness is of primary importance to a state. Along with the glorification of the ideals of a professional military class. The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others. This was significant to 19 and 20th century Europeans because there was a lot of discrimination or prejudice based on race. An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions. Realism is the representation in art or literature of objects, actions, or social conditions as they actually are, without idealization or presentation in abstract form. Feminism is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of women. Social Darwinism is a branch of Darwinism and is a sociological theory that sociocultural advancement comes through conflict and competition, and the socially elite classes such as those who possess wealth and power possess biological superiority in the struggle for existence among humans. Anti- Semitism in Europe was the hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group Zionism was an international movement originally for the establishment of a Jewish national or religious community in Palestine and later for the support of modern Israel Modernism was a practice, usage, or expression peculiar to modern times in the 19th and 20th Centuries Impressionism is a theory or practice in painting especially among French painters of about 1870 of depicting the natural appearances of objects by means of dabs or strokes of primary unmixed colors in order to simulate actual reflected light Post- impressionism is a theory or practice of art originating in France in the last quarter of the 19th century that in revolt against impressionism stresses variously volume, picture structure, or expressionism Imperialism is the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas; broadly : the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence Utilitarianism is a doctrine that the useful is the good and that the determining consideration of right conduct should be the usefulness of its consequences; specifically : a theory that the aim of action should be the largest possible balance of pleasure over pain or the greatest happiness of the greatest number Isolationism is a policy of national isolation by abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations a doctrine based on revolutionary Marxian socialism and Marxism-Leninism that was the official ideology of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Chartism is the principles and practices of a body of 19th century English political reformers advocating better social and industrial conditions for the working classes. This greatly impacted the way of life for all 19 and 20th century Europeans
through the development and new economy and the changing of the family
dynamics, and moving family's from rural areas to the cities. The significance of Capitalism in the 19 and 20th century was that production was privately or corporately owned which meant that development equaled the profits gained in a free market and this greatly impacted the people of the time. The significance of Socialism in the 19 and 20th century was that most of the economy is controlled by the government which effects the Europeans of this time period. The significance of Militarism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans began to desire to be very strong militarily for protection, and was another major cause of World War 1. The significance of Romanticism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans began to focus on nature and on the individuals expression of emotion and imagination in their art. The significance of Realism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans began to show objects, actions, or social conditions as they actually are making them seem more real. The significance of Feminism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans began to see women as not needing to only do work in the home, they began to be able to get jobs and get rights. The significance of Social Darwinism in the 19 and 20th century was that some Europeans began to think of natural selection in humans not just in animals and thought of "survival of the fittest" The significance of Social Darwinism in the 19 and 20th century was that some Europeans developed a strong hate for the Jews and blamed them for all of the problems they were having The significance of Zionism in the 19 and 20th century was that some Europeans The significance of Modernism in the 19 and 20th century was that some Europeans The significance of Impressionism in the 19 and 20th century was that one could now find natural appearances of objects with primary unmixed colors can be found in European art. The significance of Post-impressionism in the 19 and 20th century was that some Europeans began to turn against impressionism. The significance of Imperialism in the 19 and 20th century was that some European governments wanted the territorial acquisitions to gain power over the political and economic life. The significance of Utilitarianism in the 19 and 20th century was that some Europeans want the balance of power and to keep the most amout of people happy. The significance of Capitalism in the 19 and 20th century was that it was an idea that Europeans should be isolated. The significance of Communism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans could be more equal and everyone got the same things. The significance of Chartism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans had political and social reforms. The significance of Anarchism in the 19 and 20th century was that European government wanted all forms of authority. The significance of Socialism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans saw surrender to higher groups. The significance of Republicanism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans began to look though Republican ideals. Anarchism is a political theory holding all forms of governmental authority to be unnecessary and undesirable and advocating a society based on voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups Utopian Socialism is socialism based on a belief that social ownership of the means of production can be achieved by voluntary and peaceful surrender of their holdings by propertied groups. Republicanism favors a republic as the best form of government but was quite different in the 19th and 20th centuries then it is today. The significance of Capitalism in the 19 and 20th century was that Europeans began to want to stick with the old ways instead of change. An economic and social system based on the development of large-scale industries and marked by the production of large quantities of inexpensive manufactured goods and the concentration of employment in urban factories.