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Introduction to Genetics

Haploid vs Diploid
by

Miss Schwinge

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Genetics

how is inheritance passed on?
Introduction to Genetics
As you are already familiar with, all
living things
have
thousands of genes,
which determine
individual traits.
These genes are
not
just
floating
around in a cell, instead they are
lined up on chromosomes.
And a
typical
chromosome can have
thousands of genes
on it.
Genes,
Chromosomes,
and Numbers
In the
body cells
(also known as
somatic cells
) of most living things,
chromosomes come in pairs.

One
of the chromosomes in each pair
comes from the male parent
. The
other
chromosome comes from the
female parent.
A cell that has
two of each kind of chromosome
(which means the cell has
46
chromosomes) is called a
diploid cell.
"
Diploid
" meaning
two sets
.
Haploid Cells
However, organisms also produce a
different kind
of cells called
haploid cells
. This cell contains only
one of each kind of chromosome.
Every living thing has a
set number of chromosomes.
When the organism
reproduces
, it
passes on
half the number of chromosomes.
A
diploid cell
is a
body cell
, which are the vast
majority
of cells we have discussed (
blood, skin, hair, etc.
)
A
gamete
,
or
sex cell
, is a
haploid cell.
"
Haploid
" meaning
one set
, which tells us that a
haploid cell
only contains
half the number of chromosomes
as a
body cell
(which would be
23
).
Diploid Cells
It was discovered that
parents
give
one allele
of each
trait
to their
offspring
, because the gamete is a haploid cell containing half the number of chromosomes as a body cell.
When both gametes fuse together
, they
equal the right amount
.
Male gametes are sperm, while female gametes are eggs
In
diploid
cells, the
two chromosomes of each pair
are called
homologous chromosomes
, and
each
chromosome of the pair has
genes for the same traits in the same order.
In
haploid
cells, each cell has
half the genetic information
because it has only
one chromosome
from each
homologous pair
.
Full transcript