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World Curlures

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on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of World Curlures

World Cultures Final - Yemen
Josiah Burkman
Period 7

Dark Past
The Yemen flag represents
their country's struggle
through the ages of turmoil and
war: the red and black colors.
The white represents a hopeful
future for the people of Yemen.
The national flag is the symbol of
the government and is a social
symbol to all the people. The flag,
in this case, is a beacon of hope
and the representation of their

Yemen Flag
less than one percent christian and Hindu
Days off work based off religious calendar
political holidays
Christmas not celebrated
clothing based off religion
Picture of the National Yemen Flag
Flag colors are red for blood, white for hope, black for dark past
symbol of national pride
represents the nation
The main religion of Yemen is Muslim. 99 percent of the population of Yemen is part of the Muslim Brotherhood. The other one percent is Christian and Hindu. The government of Yemen is influenced by the Muslim religion. The holidays in Yemen are be based off the Muslim calendar where families can get together and celebrate their religion. Along with taking days off from work for religious holidays, the clothing for the majority of Yemen is based off the Quran's message of modesty. Extremist groups have been known to enforce this dress code violently. (Yemen)
holds value to all who see: money is universal
holds particular value to people
symbolizes wealth
100 Rial=0.47 US Dollars
weak economy
A country's currency is viewed as a valuable wherever you go. To the people of that country, it holds even more value because that is what is used for trade of goods. The YER(Yemeni Rial), however, is considered utterly worthless in many countries on account of Yemen's poor economy. The YER was distributed in Yemen in 1994 after the civil war. One of the main causes of Yemen's poor economy was Yemen's civil war.
Right to left
Official language
spoken mainly throughout the Middle East
Good morning-Sabah el kheer
Woman wearing a hijab for religious purposes.
Yemeni Rial
Arabic alphabet
The in language spoken in Yemen is Arabic. Arabic is also spoken in many other countries within the Middle East. This allows easier communication throughout the Middle East and throughout Yemen. Arabic is read right to left as opposed to the English language. An example of the Arabic language is "Sabah el kheer" meaning "good morning" in English. Pictured above is the Arabic alphabet.
low income
rely on oil income
8.5% agriculture
36% industry
55.5% services
35% unemployed
$7.395 billion in debt
Yemen is a low-income nation with over one quarter of the nation jobless. This hurts the economy with people out of a job. Yemen's economy greatly relies on oil resources. The majority of the working force are involved in the services. Yemen is likely struggling because of their political leader. All in all, Yemen has a poor economy.
Yemen poverty rates
Current Issues
food and water shortages
war with al-Qaeda
weak relationships with outside nations
Yemen clearly has some issues within its own state and outside it. There is the main issue of poverty and their weak economy. The state of Yemen also waged war against the militant group, al-Qaeda while dealing with rebellions in their own country. Yemen's political leaders are not the strongest leaders because of their decisions to be dishonest with outside countries.
Police controlling protesters
President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi
Prime Minister Mohammed Basindawa
poor government
president elected by popular vote and at least two prime ministers
many countries sought to aid Yemen
supported Iraq in First Gulf War
still disputing land boarders
The main parts of the Yemeni government are the president and the prime minister. The president is elected by both popular vote and by at least two ministers. The Yemeni government is known to been rather weak one.There have been numerous protests in the past and corruption within the government. Outside countries sought to aid Yemen in the past, without much success, and Yemen has also sided with enemies of the UN even though Yemen is a part of the UN. All throughout history, there have been wars and battles fought around and throughout Yemen. Some land disputes are still in progress between Yemen and Saudi-Arabia.
A Yemeni protest against the government
crops include millet, sorghum, wheat, barley (all grains), and sesame
fruits include apricots, bananas, grapes, papayas, and pomegranates
other vegetables include beans, lentils, onions, tomatoes, other similar vegetables
khat is the leading crop(stimulant)
coffee beans
borek- traditional, fancy food item(YemenKitchen)
Yemen has a wide variety of crops grown throughout the entire culture. The main cash crop in the economy is a stimulant called khat, which also is a main issue involving hunger because you can not eat khat, only chew it for a stimulant. In the more mountainous terrain, the fields are laid out similar to the rice fields in China; little flats cut into the mountains. Along the coastline and islands of Yemen, as you can imagine, are in the fishing industry. (WorldBook)One type of Yemeni food is the borek; a traditional, rich type of food served at special events. This dish consists of layers of meat, eggs, cheese, dough, and other spices. Meals are often eaten together as a family and prepared by the women. Errands are run by the men. Ingredients and preparation here(sorry it takes a long time to prepare and would not fit on the slide!):http://yemenkitchen.wordpress.com (YemenKitchen)
Traditional borek
Family Life
Members: siblings, parents, sometimes grandparents
Responsibilities: men: work; women: possibly work, household chores; girls: help mother with chores; boys: run errands and clean rooms
members respect solitude, encourage interests
pets are rare
socializing with opposite gender is disapproved
Yemen houses
Family life in Yemen is similar to many other countries in the Middle East. The members consist of the parents, siblings, and sometimes the grandparents. The role of the father is to provide for the family and help the economy. The mother and girls' role is to do household chores and the mother can hold a job if she wants to but, she still needs to do housework. The boys' jobs are to run errands and clean their rooms. Generally, having a friend who is the opposite gender is frowned upon, and pets are a rare sight. Family members are encouraged to follow their ambitions and respect personal space.
no official dress code in Yemen
expected dress codes throughout society
muslim dress
no shorts
very traditional dress for women
strict muslim society
Yemen women dress
Although Yemen has no set dress code, the society has certain expectations. For instance, Yemen is a strict muslim nation and the women are expected to cover themselves in the fashion of a muslim regardless of your religion in some areas. Mostly, you just need to dress professionally. The dress in Yemen is very traditional. Items that are not allowed are shorts and skirts, and sleeveless shirts. Some issues have been brought up in the past with women from other nations having to wear traditional muslim attire, and was actually brought up in court.
known as Arabia Felix
produced frankincense and myrrh
Trade center
900 B.C. Queen Sheba ruled
castles, farms, dams, cities built during that period
A.D.100 "golden age" failed by tribal wars
Islam introduced in 600
Area fell under Ottoman control in 1517
1924 Treaty of Lausanne granted freedom to northwest Yemen
1962 soldiers overthrew government and set up a new one fighting ended in 1970
1839 British control southern port city Aden
UK extend control and gather six tribal states in 1959; 1965 most of southern Yemen under British control
1967 British troops leave on accounts of terrorist attacks by northern Yemen
1967 State of Yemen formed
Yemeni Socialist Party,YSP, control Yemen
Fighting broke out because of Communist ties by YSP
North and South Yemen fight
North and South relations get better throughout 1980's and 90's
Civil war between North and South over power and oil in May of 1994
North wins in July of 1994 and formed one country
Ancient Yemeni Castle and farmlands
Yemen was once a rich and prosperous nation called Arabia Felix or Fortunate Arabia. Its main purpose was a trading center for the Middle East around 900 B.C. where merchants would come from all over the world to sell or trade goods. At that time, Queen Sheba ruled Arabia Felix and many cities, castles, farms, dams, and temples were built. The "golden age" of Arabia Felix ended when tribes started warring against each other. Since then, Yemen has been ruled by many other nations and has deteriorated to the point of ruins of ancient dams being found in the desert. Yemen has seen many political changes, and much war. Throughout history, Yemen is either at war with itself of against another nation. Yemen's economy has also been slipping throughout time. Yemen's wealth and prosperity seemed to have been fading away and all that remains of the past are ancient ruins scattered about Yemen.
900 B.C.
Arabia Felix's golden age
Ruled by Queen Sheba

100 A.D.
golden age ends by warring tribes

600 A.D.
Islam introduced to Yemen

Yemen under Ottoman control

Southern Yemen under British control

Treaty of Lausanne

British influence spreads
Northern Yemen gets changed government

British leave
Yemen is independent

Fighting against northern government stops

North and South relations improve

Civil war
North wins
New government

Yemen Timeline
West coast humid
East mountains temperate with monsoon rains
East harsh desert
Average rainfall undetermined on account of monsoon rains and desert climate
Sand and dust storms in summer
Very little water
Average maximum temperature is 40C or 104F
Yemen climate graph
Yemen is a Nation with a varying climate. Temperatures can range from 40 degrees Celsius to 20. Little precipitation in the desert climate to monsoon rains in the mountains. Areas in Yemen are dealing with water shortages, which can affect the farming industry. On account of the outlier rainfalls, there is no set average rainfall for Yemen as a whole. That is how much different Yemen's climate can vary. In short, Yemen has high temperatures and little precipitation.
minor volcanic activity
Middle East
Total Area: 527,968 sq km
0 sq km water
bordering countries: Saudi Arabia and Oman
1,906 km coastline
Highest elevation: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760m
Lowest elevation: Arabian sea 0m
Yemen topographic map
Yemen is located in the Middle East with the Arabic Sea just below it. The bordering countries are Saudi Arabia and Oman. Yemen is a small country with an area of 527,968 square kilometers; roughly twice the size of Wyoming. There are mountain ranges, deserts, and coastline. Much of Yemen lies above sea level and just the coast line at sea level. A trading route runs through Yemen, hence boosting the economy slightly. The desert zone in north eastern Yemen provides poor farmland and little water. There are no lakes or rivers anymore in Yemen; the desert has depleted those resources. Yemen's geography can also be easily defended with plenty of coastline, and a nice mountain range in the middle.
left hand unclean
women are looked down on
shoes off in house
four fingers, palm down gestures
greeting in Arabic of roughly "Peace be with you"
Men either shake hands, hug, or kiss on cheek
women kiss or hug out of sight of men
A Yemen greeting
Yemen's society, being that they follow the muslim religion, looks down on women both political and socially. A situation is the fact that women have to wear traditional muslim clothing as a part of "common decency." Women also cannot preform a traditional muslim greeting within the sight of man. The traditional greeting is to shake hands for men, hug or kiss for both men and women. Some women oppose this level of separation, and want more rights, but because of Yemen's overwhelming muslim population, most women do not get the opportunity to voice their opinions. Other manners that are just considered common decency in Yemen include taking off their shoes before they enter a house and not using one's left hand.
Information Technology
low tech
low income
1.1 million telephones in use
TV has two stations
Radio has 2 national stations and 5 local
2.349 million internet users
Technology in Yemen
It is understood that Yemen, being a low-income nation, will be very low-tech. Good news for Yemen, there are more and more advances being made in technology in Yemen as I type this. The rate of telephone users and internet users is pretty low, but as I mentioned, the technology rate is rising. However, being that many are still without what we consider "acquit" technology, the people have to perform different actions in replace of machinery that more advanced nations use. For example, many of the schools here are now using technology in place of textbooks, when in Yemen, many of the schools still use those textbooks, some being outdated. This can effect the jobs and the economy.
Muslim nation
Religion and politics go hand and hand
The Islam symbol
Yemen is an Islamic nation and their political and religious holidays go hand and hand. One of the most important holidays is Ramadan. This is based off the muslim calendar and starts by fasting between sunrise and sunset, then afterwords, gathering and feasting while worshiping. Another important holiday is the birth of Muhammad and the Feast of Sacrifice. The day is called Mouloud. This is celebrated by feasting and worshiping. One very important custom is the idea of modesty for the men and women but mostly the women. In the Quran, it was written that the ones who follow Islam should show modesty. The very specific example is the traditional muslim dress and the hijab.
0-14 years old is the majority of the current population
Population as of July 2013: 25,408,288 people
2.5% growth rate
6.64/1000 death rate
64.47 average life expectancy for male and female
18.5 median age for male and female
65.3 literacy rate
23% child labor rates
75.6 dependency rate
Yemen demographics(age)
Yemen is a country with very poor medical help. The life expectancy is low compared to the US. The majority of the population is in the zero to 14 gap. Although the literacy rate looks pretty good, the majority of the boys make up the 65.3 percent because the girls are expected to stay at home instead of going to school. This literacy rate indicates the general lack of medics and engineers thus halting the economy. The population is steadily growing despite limited resources. Families are generally young and are dependent on one another. Yemen's struggling economy shows the true effect of the literacy rates.
Co-ed until grade four
Homework and tests
boys will get higher education
extra curricular activities are by clubs and not really the schools
no cellphones in schools
speak to teachers by saying "teacher" then their first name
A smaller, co-ed class
Schools in Yemen are not very different from the schools in the US aside from the fact of lack of technology. Students are examined by tests and homework. Participation is another way to evaluate students, but is the lesser of the mentioned. The schools are co-ed generally until fourth grade, however, the boys and girls sit with the same gender. Often times, girls drop out of school to help around the family. This could be economically damaging, and the last thing Yemen needs is more economic troubles. The reason the girls drop out could be religious. The Islamic society says women stay at home and men work, so that could be why so many girls drop out.
Global Contributions
Part of the UN
Supported Iraq in first Gulf War ended up hurting relations with UN
Security council for UN
A UN meeting in Yemen
The country of Yemen is involved in several global organizations, but does not really do anything because of their weak economy. Yemen is a member of OPEC and the UN; some of the more important groups. Yemen's involvement in OPEC is a bit more intimate on account of Yemen's huge oil reserves.
Yemen's job in the UN is to be part of the Security Council. During the first Gulf War, Yemen seemed to side with Iraq; completely against what the UN wanted because of rumors of Iraq's nuclear weapons. Yemen was said to have stated to not act in violence against Iraq. These actions hurt Yemen politically , because you really can not go against the UN because of all the world's superpowers would likely go against you.
Sana'a, Yemen
Example of Old Yemen architecture
Recently been restored
inhabited for over 2,500 years
106 mosques
modernization issues today
Islamic center
Place of Independence
Sana'a, Yemen(houses, mosque, stores)
Sana'a, Yemen is a perfect example of Yemen architecture. The city has been inhabited for over 2,500 years and has 106 mosques. Sana'a is a very famous city because of its well-known architecture. This city is an Islamic center in Yemen as well as an independence center after the Turks left. There are several issues with the city. One of the main issues is around the 1970's, Sana'a was having troubles with the city falling apart because of age. This started a whole movement to repair the broken city. Unfortunately, Yemen is a poor nation, so there are still problems with this. Another issue with Sana'a is the lack of technology. Since Sana'a is an ancient city, the is very little technology and little opportunity to install it without damaging the city.
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Works Cited
Full transcript