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Copy of Unit 707 Stocks, soups and sauces

Prepare Stocks, Sauces and Soups
by

joan wall

on 28 July 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Unit 707 Stocks, soups and sauces

Stocks Soups and Sauces
Aims:
To develop knowledge and understanding to implement skills in the preparation and cookery principles of Stocks, Soups, and Sauces
Objectives:
Understand the different varieties of stocks, soups and sauces
Understand the use of relative ingredients stocks, soups and sauces
State the quality points of soups and of various stocks and sauce commodities and their uses in a selection of dishes
Identify the storage procedures of stocks, soups and sauces
List the correct tools and equipment
What is a stock ?
It is a liquid containing all the soluble nutrients extracted through prolong and gentle simmering
Basic Stocks
Brown Meat Stock
White Meat Stock
Fish Stock
White Vegetable stock
White meat (chicken, veal, mutton, beef) stock – chop the bones to small even sizes place the bones into a stock pot, cover with cold water
Bring to the boil, wash the bones under cold water and clean the stock pot,
Return the bones to the pot and refill with water, re-boil, skim and simmer for 2 hours
Add the (washed, peeled and chopped) vegetables to the simmering liquid, add bouquet garni and simmer for 2-4 hours, skim and strain.
chop bones into even size pieces
brown the bones in an oven
place the bones in a stock pot and deglaze the tray with cold water and add to bones
cover with cold water and bring to the boil, skim and simmer for 2 hours
add washed, peeled and chopped vegetables, browned in the meat fat
simmer and skim for 6-8 hours, strain
Fish Stock
use fresh white fish bones
sweat chopped vegetables and fish bones without
colour
add the water, bring to the boil
White Vegetable Stock
Clean, peel and wash the veg
roughly chop all the vegetables
bring to the boil in and simmer for 1 hour, skimming if needed
Qaulity points for Fish Stock?
Should not be cloudy
Flavour is clear, not to bitter
no fat traces
all scum removed
freshly made
translucent and without colour
it has been strained
Techniques
All the techniques below are used for the majority of stocks produced
De-glazing
Skimming
Straining and passing
Reducing
Cooking Times For Stocks
Brown
Meat Stock
Fish
Stock
White Vegetable Stock
White Meat Stock
6-8 hrs
20 mins
2-4 hrs
1 hour
Storage
rapid cooling should take place
Key Points
Use only fresh bones and vegetables

Continually remove scum and fat from the surface of the stock as it cooks

Always simmer gently

Never add salt

If the stock is going to be kept, strain and cool it quickly then store it in a refrigerator

Brown Meat stock
Convenience Stocks
Powder
Chilled
Frozen
Soups
Different flavoured stocks can be used as a base to make large variety of soups.


Almost any of the vast range of fresh vegetables and dried pulses (peas and beans) can be used added to soups. Grains, pasta and many herbs and spices can also be used

Soup Classification
Puree
Cream
Broth
Veloute
Consomme
Bisque
Chowder
Miscellaneous
Process of Cooking a Puree of Lentil Soup
Cook chopped vegetables gently in vegetable oil with the lentils
Add the hot stock, bouquet garni and season
Simmer for 1 hour, skim when necessary and remove the bouquet garni
Liquidise and then pass through a sieve
Return to a clean pan and reboil
Correct the seasoning and consistency
Key Points to Remember When Making Soups
Use the correct tools and equipment


The exact weighing and measuring of ingredients is important to determine the correct consistency and flavour, correct portions and reduces wastage.


Check the quality and freshness of ingredients.


Quality of Ingredients
Vegetables should crisp in texture firm to touch.
Meat fat free, fresh with a pleasant smell and not sticky to touch.
Herbs not wilted – bright and aromatic when touched.
Stocks freshly made, not greasy and not cloudy.
Healthy Options
In general soups are a
healthy
part of our diet, especially broths that are nutritious and easily digested.
In general soups are a
healthy
part of our diet, especially broths that are nutritious and easily digested.
The addition of yoghurt or single cream instead of double cream
The use of unsaturated oils instead of
butter
reduce fat and cholesterol intake
Quantities - Portions
The quantity for a required amount should be calculated on the basis of the following points:-


How much is to be served as a portion (200-250ml)
Cost control of the ingredients
Yield from the recipe
What garnish may be served to accompany the soup
Type of Menu/style of service
Sauces
What is a Sauce?
A sauce is a flavoured liquid which has been thickened in one way or another.


Sauces are normally classified according to their preparation method as follows
Roux sauces
Starch- thickened sauces


Egg-based (emulsified) sauces


Meat, vegetable and poultry roasting gravies


Puree sauces


Reductions
Classic
Tomato
Sauce
Melt the butter in a heavy based pan
Add bacon (optional), cook until lightly coloured
Add mirepoix and continue cooking
The addition of Fresh Thyme, bay leaf and garlic at this stage will enhance he flavour
Add the flour and cook to a blond roux
Mix in the tomato puree
Slowly add the white stock and simmer for 1hr
Season and check consistency
Pass through a fine strainer
Cooking times for roux based sauces
What is a Roux ?
A roux is a combination of fat and flour which are cooked together. There are three degrees to which a roux may be cooked:


White
Blond
Brown
Bechamel
Blond Roux
3-5 mins
60 Mins
Veloute
Brown
10-15 mins
4-6 hrs
White
2-3 mins
30 mins
Derivaties
Bechamel
Cheese (mornay)
Anchovy Sauce
Onion Sauce
Parsley Sauce
Cream Sauce
Mustard Sauce
Egg Sauce
Base for Cream Soups
Vegetables,
Fish
,
Pasta
Poached or Boiled Fish
Roast Mutton
Mutton is a lamb over 12months old
Poached fish, Vegetables, Meat
Poached Fish, Vegetables
Grilled Fish (Herrings)
Poached Fish
Derivaties
Brown
Onion sauce
Chasseur Sauce
Demi Glace:
1/2 epagnole-1/2 estouffade
Reform sauce
Derivaties
Veloute
Caper sauce
Supreme sauce
Mushroom sauce
Different sauces are made with different stock!!
Good Practices for Storage
Rapid cooling should take place
Hygienically stored (plastic container with lids, vacuum packing)
Labelled and dated
In a refrigerator at 4 degrees or below or frozen at -18 degrees
What is the
Minimum
temperature for holding soups and sauces ?
63`c
WHY ?
The Regulations apply the requirement for temperature control to all types of food which, without temperature control, might support the growth of harmful (pathogenic) bacteria or the formation of poisons (toxins)
Emulsified
Sauces
"suspension of egg yolk, acid in an oil or fat"
Hollandaise
Mayonaise
Derivaties
Hollandaise
Bearnaise
Maltaise sauce
mousseline
Mayonaise
Tartar
Parsley
Garlic
Marie rose
regularly skim
simmer for 20mins
Strain
correctly stored at 4`c or
below
hygienically stored
placed above raw produce
label and date for rotation
refrigerator at 4`c freezer at -18`c
Chilled
to below 5`c within 90 mins
Chilled
Name some examples of soups
veloute
cream
chilled
broth
Full transcript