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Differentiated Instruction

Queen University, Group Members: Erin, Jevon, Ramnarine, Grace and Tracy

Jevon Salerno

on 22 July 2013

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Transcript of Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated Instruction and Special Education
The Salamanca Statement and Framework of Action
2) Determine which areas of your curriculum could work with DI

• Know the expectations of your course well

• Choose a few skills or concepts that could be taught at different levels of challenge

• Brainstorm various activities, tasks and/or assessments that target a specific skill or concept, remembering that ideas should include a range of readiness, interests and learning preferences

I’m a teacher. Where do I begin if I’d like to incorporate DI into my classroom?
3) Identify your role as a teacher in a DI classroom

• Brainstorm how you might alter the way in which you deliver your material, concentrating on auditory, visual and kinesthetic approaches

• Identify different ways to assess students’ knowledge, comprehension and understanding, remembering that effective assessments need to help you understand your students’ abilities, interests and needs

I’m a teacher. Where do I begin if I’d like to incorporate DI into my classroom?
1) Get to know the students in your classroom

• Check former report cards to identify the level at they are working in your subject area
• Provide a learning styles quiz to determine how they learn best
• Talk to your students regularly to determine what topics and activities interest them

Queen's University

Differentiated Instruction and its Implication for Special Education

CONT 506 - 002 : Special Education Specialist

Group Members: Erin, Jevon, Ramnarine, Grace and Tracy

Fair is not everyone getting the same thing. Fair is everyone getting what they need. -Anonymous.
Welcome, Introductions
Ice Breaker
Why Differentiated Instruction
Defining Differentiated Instruction
Learning Styles
Theory of Practice and Differentiated Instruction
Examples of Differentiated Instruction

Agenda at a Glance
There's always time for
Alice, Brian, Carol and David are on an outdoors team building course. They have to cross a bridge in 17 minutes. The bridge will collapse if there are more than two people on it at the same time. It is dark and it is too dangerous to cross the bridge without a torch. There is only one torch.

Alice can cross the bridge in 1 minute. The others are wounded or injured to varying degrees which means that it takes:

Brian 2 minutes to cross the bridge;

Carol 5 minutes to cross the bridge;

David 10 minutes to cross the bridge.

If there is more than one person on the bridge, the bridge can only be crossed at the speed of the slowest person. How can they cross the bridge in 17 minutes?
Icebreaker: Crossing the Bridge
Alice (1 min) and Brian (2 min) cross the bridge (2 minutes).

Alice (1 min) takes the torch back to the other side (1 minute),

Carol (5 min) and David (10 min) cross the bridge (10 minutes),

Brian (2 min) takes the torch back to the other side (2 minutes),

Alice (1 min) and Brian (2 min) cross the bridge (2 minutes).

Critical Questions
What have I heard about Differentiation?

What do I know about Differentiation?

What do I want to know about Differentiation?

What have I learned about Differentiation?

Let's discuss:
Have you met this type of
teacher before?
Originating from the UNESCO conference in June 1994 on Special Education, it reflected the belief of 92 governments worldwide on the Policy and Practice in Special Education . It proclaimed :

• Every child has a fundamental right to education, and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning,
• Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs,
• Education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs,
• Those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within a child centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs

In Ontario, Bill 82 amended the Education Act in 1980 and heralded the beginning of school boards’ obligations to provide special education programs and services for its exceptional students.
Prior to Bill 82, children with severe disabilities were often excluded from Ontario’s school system

By the end of this workshop, you will:

a) Know what differentiated instruction (DI) is

b) Know how to differentiate in your classroom

c) Know the benefits of DI for your exceptional students"
Workshop Objectives
Watch the following video of Carol Ann Tomlinson discussing why we should differentiate our instructio. It gives an introduction as to differentiated instruction and its importance to our special education learners.
- Tracking
- A New Strategy
- Static
- Teaching to the Middle
- A series of activities
- Lowering the Bar

IS Not...
- Flexible Grouping
- Student Centered
- Rigorous / Relevant
- For all Learners
- Based on academic and personal needs
- Fosters relationshipsand reflection

Differentiated Instruction
“... differentiation can show us how to teach the same standard to a range of learners by employing a variety of teaching and learning modes.”

-Tomlinson 2000

DI Characterisitcs
Classrooms are student centered.
Teachers vary their instructional practices in response to their students’ learning
Teachers start where the students are – level of readiness
Teachers develop skills to present curriculum content in multiple ways to respond to individual learning differences

So what is differentiated instruction (DI)?
“...effective instruction that is responsive to students’ readiness, interests and learning preferences.”

Readiness... “refers to the student’s starting point for learning, relative to the concept being studied.”

Paying attention to a student’s interests “enhances the relevancy of learning by linking new information to students’ experience and enthusiasm.”

Learning preferences... “are the many different ways in which learners prefer to acquire, process and work information. Learning preferences are influenced by gender, culture, the classroom environment, learning styles and multiple intelligences.”

In order to provide DI, assessments need to be used on an ongoing basis in order to identify where students are in their learning, in addition to their readiness, interests and learning preferences.
What do teachers need to know about DI?
I’m a teacher. Where do I begin if I’d like to incorporate DI into my classroom?
Depending on your students’ readiness, interests and learning profiles, you can differentiate the following:

• Content – what students are going to learn

• Process – the activities that students perform or the materials they use in order to learn

• Product – what the students do after the learning period in order to demonstrate their learning

• Learning Environment – the setup of the learning environment

How can I incorporate DI into my classroom?
Vary what you teach or how you teach it.

Note: You are not changing or modifying the concepts or expectations of what is being taught; rather, students are being provided with different options to learn those concepts and master those expectations based on their readiness, interests or learning preferences.

Examples of content differentiation include:

 Providing reading materials at different reading levels; however, all materials will still help students to reach the same objectives (considers readiness)
 Presenting ideas through audio, visual and kinesthetic means (considers learning preferences)
 Options for interest centres or independent study options (considers interests)
 Choice of different books to read and/or offer some books on CD (considers readiness, interests and learning preferences)
Offering students a chance to work at different levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (considers readiness)

How do I differentiate content?
Classroom Scenario
Jaxson is a 12 year old student who has trouble
working in large classroom settings, copying down notes, independently reading and understanding comprehension. He also has ASD.
You have one minute to think about how you would differentiate a lesson for him.
Once that minute is up, you have 2 minutes to share with the person on your right.
We will then discuss as a group after the 3 minutes are up!
Vary what the student is able to do in order to demonstrate what he/she has learned.

Examples of product differentiation include:

 Offer students a choice in culminating activities and/or projects (considers readiness, interests and learning preferences)
 Use a variety of assessment and evaluation strategies, such as tests, projects, performances, interviews, etc (considers readiness, interests and learning preferences)

How do I differentiate product?
The use of a choice board allows for DI. Not only do students have choice in their tasks, teachers can use the time to work with smaller groups so they can reach every student.

These types of tasks also allow students with anxiety to cope better because of the flexibitly. They can choose tasks that they feel most comfortable with and work with a partner or a mentor on tasks that they struggle with.
Vary the environment of your classroom so that it is positive and structured for all students

Examples of learning environment differentiation include:

 Offering places for quiet, independent work, as well as collaborative work (considers learning preferences)
Students with ASD often need a designated 'quiet zone' to relax, calm down and debrief. This type of set up allows for an inclusive enviornment where all needs are met.

How do I differentiate learning environment?
 Providing a procedure for all classroom activities, including what to do if an activity is finished early (considers readiness)
Students with ASD excel when their learning environment is structured for them. Any don time can promote anxiety so having these procedures in place not only benefits students with ASD, but the entire class.
In Summary...
At your table you will find an envelope. Open the envelope and select a topic from the three choices given.

Your goal: determine how you could differentiate either the content of that topic, the process for teaching it or the product to determine the student's understanding.

The student: She has visual-spatial issues, ADHD and anxiety.

Use the sticky notes in the envelope to put your ideas under our subjects board!

You have 4 minutes!

Sticky-Note Activity
Vary what you do or the materials you use to help students reach objectives.

Examples of process differentiation include:

 Compacted curriculum (considers readiness)
 Anchor activities – extra activities for students who have completed work early that will reinforce learning and facilitate extended learning, while allowing the teacher to spend more time with students who need it (considers readiness)
 Ability groupings, either similar or different, with a role for each student (considers readiness)
 Use of hands-on materials (considers learning preferences)
 Offering the choice in how a student receives a lesson – teacher-directed, reading the textbook, looking online, working in small groups, etc (considers interests and learning preferences)

How do I differentiate process?

“Individual students with special education needs may require specific accommodations in the...classroom, but teachers can support the learning of all students – particularly those with learning difficulties – by incorporating elements of differentiated instruction.”

Why is DI important to my Special Education learners?
1) DI considers students’ individual learning styles and offers a variety of ways for students to learn and explore curriculum and to demonstrate their learning. In other words, DI “allows teachers to address specific skills and difficulties”, something especially important for our exceptional learners. (http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/reports/speced/panel/speced.pdf)

 DI offers teachers an excellent opportunity to work with exceptional students’ IEP’s, as they give much information on students’ learning styles, strengths and areas of need. As a result, IEP’s become essential teacher tools that should be used to determine how to differentiate content, process, product and/or learning environment for exceptional students.
2) DI supports the idea that even though the learning and demonstration of learning are exhibited and achieved in different ways among students, all methods are of equal value

 DI makes it “the norm” that everyone learns differently and helps to reduce any potential stigma of accommodations and learning disabilities or challenges

3) DI considers students’ abilities. As a result, it offers all students more opportunities for success.

 Providing students with a greater chance for success may be especially important for our students with exceptionalities, as they may be prone to academic struggles. Achieving success will also help exceptional students to gain an awareness of, and confidence in, their own abilities.

“By providing students with learning experiences that create a sense of competence,
enjoyment and belonging, teachers can increase the motivation and success of all
students. When motivation is combined with appropriate accommodations and
differentiated instruction, students with special education needs can gain valuable
knowledge, skills and experiences in the...classroom.”

KWL Chart
On the sticky provided, please put down what you KNOW about DI right now and then what you WANT to know about DI. After the presentation, I will have you write down what you have LEARNED on your sticky and put it in our chart.

Review of Objectives
We have covered what DI is and what it is NOT
We have seen examples of what DI looks like in our classrooms
We have examined the benefits of DI for our exceptional students in our classrooms

On the sticky provided, please write down one thing you learned today and attach it the KWL chart at the front.

Where do we go from here?
Always look to improve student success
Apply DI to everyday planning and lessons
Continue to learn about exceptional students
Seek additional training/workshops
Use resources given today
Workshop Evaluation
Please take a few minutes to complete the workshop evaluation form, it is located in your DI bag.

Also located in your DI bag is a copy of strategies for differentiating in the Language Arts: Positioning Struggling Students for Early Success document. It is a great beginning for any teacher, educator and or parent.

We hope you enjoyed our workshop and truly learned something new today.

On that note....

...let's make a difference in children's lives using DI and not this!
Full transcript