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Transcript of Carl Rogers
Vivian Sept 2012
American Psychologist. Jan 8th, 1902 - Feb 4th, 1987 Carl Rogers.... Humanism - Rose during the mid 20th century
- roots running from Socrates through the renaissance.
- Studied individuals drive towards self actualization
- States that all people are inherently good
-Pays attention to the phenomena of creativity, free will and human potential. Carl Rogers focus was to ensure that the development processes led to a healthier and more creative personality functioning. The term "Actualizing tendency" was made by Carl. This term is the some-what similar to self actualization and the strive towards it. Humanistic counseling Person Centered Therapy The goal of person centered therapy is to provide patients with an opportunity to develop their own sense of self. In which is where they realize their attitudes, feelings and behavior are being negatively affected and make an effort into finding their true as well as positive, potential. Humanistic Theory includes several approaches to Counseling and Therapy In this technique, therapist are to create a comfortable, non-judgemental environment by demonstrating congruence, empathy. and unconditional positive regard towards the patient but also while using a non-directive approach. This helps the individual in finding their own solution to their own problems. Person Centered Therapy -Depth therapy -Marital and family therapies
-holistic health -body work
-encounter groups -existential psychology
-sensitivity training Depth therapy -Explores relationship between conscious and unconscious CONT... PCT There are 6 necessary conditions needed for the therapeutic change: -Studies various mental disorders and underlining motives Holistic health Relationship between individual ( client ) and therapist must exist, and it must be a relationship in which each person's perception of other is important. -concept in medical practice
-takes psychological, physical and social needs into account
-claims disease is a result of physical, emotional, social and environmental imbalance. Therapist-Client Psychological Contact: Encounter groups -Psychotherapy where participants learn about themselves through their interactions with others
-use feedback and role play Client Perception Sensitivity training Client in-congruence, or Vulnerability: -claims to make people more aware of their own prejudices
-criticized to be identical to brainwashing tactics and believed to be unethical
-was used in WW2 on soldiers suffering from shell shock and trauma in-congruence exist between the client's experience and awareness. Furthermore, the client is vulnerable or anxious which motivates them to stay in the relationship. Marital and family therapies -counseling of a relations to solve troublesome differences and repeating patterns of distress
-relationships get strained over time with ego, jealousy, anger, poor communication and so on Therapist Congruence: the therapist must deeply involve themselves ( with no acting ) and they can draw on their own experiences to facilitate the relationship. Body work <---- cont 2 ... -involves working with the human body
-uses manipulative therapy, breath work or energy medicine
-improves posture, promotes awareness of the mind-body connection and effects physical and mental health Therapist Unconditional Positive Regard: the therapist accepts the individual (client) unconditionally without judgment, disapproval nor approval. This increased self-regard in the client as they can become aware of experiences in which their view of self-worth was distorted by others. Existential psychology Therapist Empathic Understanding Accurate empathy on the part of the therapist helps clients believe the therapist unconditional love for them. -operates on belief that inner conflict within a person is due to confrontation with the givens of life:
-inevitability of death, freedom, responsibility, existential isolation and meaninglessness. the client perceives, to at least a minimal degree, the therapist' unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding. Rogers believed that the most important thing for a successful therapy is the therapist's attitude itself.
There are three attitudes that a therapist must have:
Congruence -the willingness to relate to clients without hiding behind a professional appearance.
Unconditional Positive Regard -Where the therapist is accepting the individual for who he or she is without disapproving feelings, actions or characteristics. It shows the willingness to listen without interrupting, judging or giving advice.
Empathy - Be able to understand and appreciate the client's feeling throughout the therapy session. The therapist does not attempt to change the client's way of thinking in any way what so ever. According to Rogers, a therapist with all of the three attitudes would allow the client to express their feelings freely without having the feeling that they are being judged. Attitude? Comfort! NON-JUDGEMENTAL Healthier! CREATIVE!! According to Carl, the inner nature of a person is actually positive and that they are a trustworthy individual. Carl's theory has contributed to the study of freedom, importance of the self, as well as the study of person. Theory... ish-nish His theory tends to agree with Maslows' theory but Carl added a few things of his own. Self actualization To Rogers, he believed that it was drive to grow and develop ourselves to the highest point as a human being. Carl thinks self- actualization is unique for every person because we all grew up and gained different traits as well as different talents from different places/environment. He also believed that everyone are good and creative but became destructive only if when their environment did not support them. His complete theory is built on one single force of life "Self Actualizing Tendency" Actualizing Tendency Making GREAT efforts to make the best of your own existence. This tendency is present in everyone, can be constructive and be directed. You can hold it back BUT its never be actually gone until you yourself is destroyed...meaning DEATH! Self involves awareness of being, functioning, which is achieved through interactions with other individuals. + "Self Actualizing Tendency" = Carl wanted to improve human condition and thus Person-centered therapy was introduced.