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British Lit Timeline

Romantics - Victorian Age - 20th Century Literature

Jessica Hessel

on 4 March 2013

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Transcript of British Lit Timeline

British Literature Timeline 1830 1840 1845 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1835 - Telegraph comes into use 1837 - William IV dies and is succeeded by Victoria 1838 - Anti-Corn Law League set up 1839 - Chartist riots 1840 - Victoria marries German prince, Albert 1840 - Penny postage instituted 1842 - Underground labor banned for women & children 1844 - Factory Act limiting working hours for women & children 1845 - John Henry Newman joins the Roman Catholic Church 1846 - 'Railway Mania' year (272 Railway acts passed) 1846 - Repeal of Corn Laws (protected farm prices) 1846 - Irish potato famine (1845-9) kills over a million 1847 - Ten Hour Factory Act (limiting working hours) 1848 - Chartist Petition to Parliament and end of Chartism 1848 - Year of revolutions in Europe 1848 - Public Health Act 1848 - Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood founded 1850 - Public Libraries Act 1851 - The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park (supported by Prince Albert) is a success 1853 - Vaccination against smallpox become compulsory 1854 - Outbreak of the Crimean War: Britain & France defend European interest in the Middle East against Russia 1854 - Florence Nightingale goes out to Scutari in the Crimea 1856 - Crimean War ends 1856 - Victoria Cross for bravery instituted 1857 - Matrimonial Causes Act (makes divorce possible without Parliament) 1860 - Cobden Act extends free trade 1861 - Death of Prince Albert; Victoria goes into seclusion 1863 - Work begins on 1st London underground (steam) railway 1863 - Association Football founded as professional sport 1863 - The Metropolitan Line is developed 1864 - Albert memorial is constructed 1861 - Outbreak of American Civil War 1865 - Founding by William Booth of Salvation Army 1865 - End of American Civil War 1866 - Rioting in Hyde Park after Reform Bill is defeated 1867 - Second Reform Act increases voters 1868 - Founding of the Trades Unon Congress 1869 - Suez Canal opened 1869 - Founding of Girton College 1870 - Married Women's Property Act gives wives the right to keep their earnings 1870 - Elementary Education Act enables local schools to be set up 1871 - Legalizing of trade unions 1871 - First Impressionist Exhibition in Paris 1871 - Religious tests abolished (Oxford, Cambridge & Durham) 1874 - Factory Act 1875 - Artisans' Dwellings Act 1875 - Efficient system of compulsory vaccination of children for smallpox 1878 - London University grants degrees to women 1876- Disraeli creates Victoria Empress of India 1876- Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone 1879 - Beginning of depression in Britain (lasts until 1890s) 1879 - William Morris's lecture leads to the Arts & Crafts Movement 1880 - Gladstone becomes Prime Minister for the 2nd time 1880 - George Eliot & Gustave Flaubert die 1880 - Education Act makes elementary education compulsory 1880 - Charles Parnell demands home rule for Ireland 1881 - Death of Carlyle 1882 - Parliament repeatedly vetoes votes for women 1884 - Third Reform Bill 1884 - Founding of the Fabien Society 1885 - Death of General Gordon at Khartoum 1885 - Criminal Law Amendment Act (raises age of consent to 16) 1886 - Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Act 1886 - Irish Home Rule Act 1887 - Victoria's Golden Jubilee 1888 - Matthew Arnold dies 1889 - London dock strike 1889 - Robert Browning dies 1890 - Decline of circulating libraries 1890 - William Morris founds the Kelmscott Press 1890 - Housing of the Working Classes Act 1892 - Death of Alfred Tennyson 1893 - Keir Hardie sets up the Independent Labour Party 1895 - Oscar Wilde jailed for homosexual offenses 1895 - 1st Bristol electric tramway 1896 - Locomotive on the Highways Act 1896 - William Morris dies 1897 - Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee 1897 - Existing suffrage organizations unite as National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies 1898 - Germany begins building it's battle fleet; Britain does the same 1898 - Wilde released from prison 1899 - Boer War in South Africa over gold mines; Britain wins 1900 - Labour Representation Committee gets candidates into Paliament 1900 - Wilde & Ruskin die 1901 - Victoria dies & is succeeded by Edward VII 1903 - 1st manned flight by Wright brothers in the U.S.A. 1904- Anglo-French Entente 1905 - Increased trade union activity 1906 - 30 Labour MPs are elected in General Election 1907 - Anglo-Russian Entente Act allows marriage to deceased wife's sister 1907 - 1st London cinema 1908 - Non-contributary state pension 1909 - Housing & Town Planning Act 1909 - Labour Exchanges Act 1910 - Edward VII dies & is succeeded by George V 1911 - National Insurance Act 1912 - William Morris produces 1st cheap Morris Oxford car 1912 - George V attends 1st Royal Command Variety Performance 1913 - A suffragette throws herself under the King's horse at the Derby 1914 - Start of First World War 1914 - A million copies of books available in libraries 1916 - Self-proclamation of an independent Irish Republic 1918 - First World War ends 1918 - Vote extended to men over 21 & some women over 30 1918 - Irish 'Dail' (parliament) set up; Irish troubles begin 1918 - British troops repress rebels 1918 - Education Act raises the school-leaving age to 14 & extends (for some) to 16 1919 - Russian Revolution sets up working-class militancy 1919 - 1st satisfactory contraceptive for women developed 1920 - Increased social awareness is indicated by extension of National Insurance against unemployment 1921 - Ireland splits into new republic & the North (part of the U.K.) 1922 - BBC begins 1924 - 1st Labour Government formed by Ramsay MacDonald 1926 - General Strike (9 days) 1926 - Ramsay MacDonald forms a coalition government (until 1935); expelled from Labour Party 1927 - Invention of talking pictures 1928 - Vote extended to women over 21 1915 Jessica Hessel 2013 1840:
Charles Dickens, "The Old Curiosity Shop"
Charles Darwin, "The Voyage of HMS Beagle" 1842:
Robert Browning, "Dramatic Lyrics"
Alfred Tennyson, "Poems"

Dickens, "A Christmas Carol"
John Ruskin, "Modern Painters" 1844:
Robert Chambers, "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation" (popularizing an evolutionary view) 1845:
Benjamin Disraeli, "Sybil"
F. Engels, "Condition of the Working Classes in England in 1844" 1847:
Charlotte Bronte, "Jane Eyre"
Emily Bronte, "Wuthering Heights" 1848:
Dickens, "Dombey and Son"
Elizabeth Gaskell, "Mary Barton"
Anne Bronte, "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall"
William Makepeace Thackeray, "Vanity Fair"
Marx and Engels, "The Communist Manifesto" 1850:
Dickens, "David Copperfield"
Tennyson, "In Memoriam" 1851:
Ruskin, "The Stones of Venice"

Thackeray, "Henry Esmond" 1853:
Dickens, "Bleak House"
Charlotte Bronte, "Villette"
Gaskell, "Cranford"
Matthew Arnold, "Poems" 1854:
Dickens, "Hard Times"

Gaskell, "Northe and South"
Anthony Trollope, "The Warden"
(1st of the Barchester novels) 1856:
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, "Aurora Leigh"
(lengthy & melodramatic verse narrative of a woman writer's life) 1857:
Dickens, "Little Dorrit"
Trollope, "Barchester Towers"
Gustave Flaubert, "Madame Bovary" 1858 - Indian Mutiny crushed 1858:
George Eliot, "Scenes of Clerical Life"

Darwin, "The Origin of Species"
Samuel Smiles, "Self-Help"
J.S. Mill, "Liberty"
Dickens, "A Tale of Two Cities"
Eliot, "Adam Bede"
Tennyson, "Idylls of the King" 1860:
Eliot, "The Mill on the Floss"
Wilkie Collins, "The Woman in White" 1861:
Dickens, "Great Expectations"
Eliot, "Silas Marner"
Francis Palgrave, "Golden Treasury (quoted by Hardy a lot)
Isabella Beeton, "Book of Household Management" (sells over 60,000 copies in 1 year)

Mary Elizabeth Braddon, "Lady Audley's Secret" (the best known of the lurid sensational novels of the 1860s) 1863:
Eliot, "Romola"
Mill, "Utilitarianism" in book form 1864:
Newman, "Apologia Pro Vita Sua"
Trollope, "Can You Forgive Her?" (the 1st of the political series, the Palliser novels) 1865:
Dickens, "Our Mutual Friend" 1866:
Eliot, "Felix Holt, the Radical"
Gaskell, "Wives and Daughters" (unfinished due to her death) 1867:
Trollope, "The Last Chronicle of Barset" (last of the Barchester novels)
Marx, "Das Kapital" 1868:
Collins, "The Moonstone"
Browning, "The Ring and the Book"
Thomas Hardy, "The Poor Man and the Lady" 1869:
Arnold, "Culture and Anarchy"
Mill, "The Subjection of Women" 1870:
Dickens, "The Mystery of Edwin Drood" (unfinished due to death)
D.G. Rossetti, "Poems" 1871:
Eliot, "Middlemarch"
Darwin, "The Descent of Man"
Hardy, "Desperate Remedies"

Hardy, "Under the Greenwood Tree" 1873:
Mill, "Autobiography"
Walter Pater, "Studies in the History of the Renaissance (encouraging 'Art for Art's sake' & the Aesthetic Movement)
Hardy, "A Pair of Blue Eyes"

Hardy, "Far from the Madding Crowd" 1875:
Trollope, "The Way We Live Now" (fierce satire on contemporary society & greed) 1876:
Eliot, "Daniel Deronda"
Henry James, "Roderick Hudson"
Hardy, "The Hand of Ethelberta"

G.H. Lewes dies
Hardy, "The Return of the Native" 1879:
Henrik Ibsen, "A Doll's House"
James, "Daisy Miller" 1880:
George Gissing, "Workers in the Dawn"
Tennyson, "Ballads and Other Poems"
Trollope, "The Duke's Children" (last of the Palliser novels)
Hardy, "The Trumpet-Major" 1881:
Ibsen, "Ghosts" (involving syphilis but later seen by Queen Victoria)
James, "Portrait of a Lady"
Hardy, "A Laodicean"

Hardy, "Two on a Tower"

Andrew Mearns, "The Bitter Cry of Outcast London" (expose of poverty) 1889:
William Booth, "Life and Labour of the People in London" (exhaustive documentary account)
G.B. Shaw, "Fabian Essays on Socialism"
Ibsen, "A Doll's House" staged in London
Gissing, "The Nether World" 1890:
Oscar Wilde, "The Picture of Dorian Gray"
Ibsen, "Hedda Gabler"

Hardy, "Tess of the d'Urbervilles" 1892:
Wilde, "Lady Windermere's Fan"
Rudyard Kipling, "Barrack-Room Ballads" 1893:
Wilde, "A Woman of No Importance"
Hardy & Florence Henniker, "The Spectre of the Real"
Hardy, "Our Exploits at West Point" (America)

Kipling, "The Jungle Book" 1895:
Wilde, "The Importance of Being Earnest"
H.G. Wells, "The Time-Machine"
Joseph Conrad, "Almayer's Folly" 1895:
Hardy, "Jude the Obscure"

Wells, "The Island of Dr. Moreau" 1897:
Havelock Ellis, "Sexual Inversion"
Hardy, "The Well-Beloved" 1898:
Wilde, "The Ballad of Reading Gaol"
Hardy, "Wessex Poems"

Conrad, "Heart of Darkness" 1902:
James, "The Wings of the Dove"

James, "The Ambassadors"

James, "The Golden Bowl"
Conrad, "Nostromo" 1905:
E.M. Forster, "Where Angels Fear to Tread" 1907:
Forester, "The Longest Journey"
Conrad, "The Secret Agent"

Forester, "A Room with a View"
Hardy, "The Dynasts" (epic drama about Napoleon)

Hardy, "Time's Laughingstock and Other Verses" 1911:
D.H. Lawrence, "The White Peacock"
Conrad, "Under Western Eyes"

Hardy, "Poems of 1912-1913" 1913:
Lawrence, "Sons and Lovers"
Hardy, "A Changed Man and Other Tales"

James Joyce, "Dubliners"
Hardy, "Satires of Circumstance" 1915:
Joyce, "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"
Virginia Woolf, "The Voyage Out"
Lawrence, "The Rainbow"

Hardy, "Selected Poems"

T.S. Eliot, "Prufrock and Other Observations"
Hardy, "Moments of Vision and Miscellaneous Verses" 1922:
Hardy, "Late Lyrics and Earlier with Many Other Verses"
Joyce, "Ulysses"
Woolf, "Jacob's Room"
T.S. Eliot, "The Waste Land"
Hardy, "The Famous Tragedy of the Queen of Cornwall" (drama) 1924:
Forester, "A Passage to India"

Woolf, "Mrs Dalloway" and "The Common Reader" (essay)
Hardy, "Human Shows, Far Phantasies, Songs and Trifles" 1927:
Woolf, "To the Lighthouse"

Lawrence, "Lady Chatterley's Lover"
Woolf, "Orlando"
Hardy, "Winter Words in Various Moods and Metres" (post-humously)
Hardy's Autobiography released by 2nd wife 1900:
Conrad, "Lord Jim"

Hardy, "Poems of the Past" 1924 - Joseph Conrad dies 1886:
Hardy, "The Mayor of Casterbridge"

Hardy, "The Woodlanders"

Hardy, "Wessex Tales" 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1775-83 - American War of Independence 1780 - Gordon Riots in London 1783 - William Pitt becomes prime minister 1784 - Death of Samuel Johnson 1787 - W. A. Mozart, "Don Giovanni" 1787 - Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade founded 1789 Fall of the Bastille (beginning of the French Revolution) 1786
Robert Burns "Poems" and "Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect" 1789:
William Blake, "Songs of Innocence" 1790 - J.M.W. Turner first exhibits at the Royal Academy 1791 - Revolution in Santo Domingo (Haiti) 1792 - September Massacres in Paris 1792 - First gas lights in Britain 1793 - Execution of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette 1793 - France declares war against Britain 1793 - Reign of Terror 1794 - The fall of Robespierre 1794 - Trials for high treason of member of the London Corresponding Society 1795 - Pitt's Gagging Acts suppress freedom of speech and assembly in Britain 1797 - Death (from childbirth) of Mary Wollstonecraft 1798 - Rebellion in Ireland 1790:
Blake, "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell"
Edmund Burke, "Reflections on the Revolution in France" 1792:
Mary Wollstonecraft, "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" 1794:
Blake, "Songs of Experience" 1798:
William Wordsworth & Samuel Coleridge, "Lyrical Ballads" 1801 - Parliamentary Union of Ireland and Great Britain 1802 - Treaty of Amiens, "Edinburgh Review" founded 1802 - John Constable first exhibits at the Royal Academy 1804 - Napoleon crowned emperor 1804 - Founding of the republic of Haiti 1805 - The French fleet defeated by the British at Trafalgar 1807 - Abolition of the slave trade in Britain 1808 - Ludwig van Beethoven, "Symphonies 5 and 6" 1809 - "Quarterly Review" founded 1800:
Mary Robinson, "Lyrical Tales" 1807:
Wordsworth, "Poems in Two Volumes"

Goethe, "Faust (part 1)" 1811 - The Prince of Wales becomes regent for George III, who is declared incurable insane 1812-15 - War between Britain and the United States 1815 - Napoleon defeated at Waterloo 1815 - Corn Laws passed, protecting economic interests of the landed aristocracy 1817 - "Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine" founded 1817 - Death of Princess Charlotte 1817 - Death of Jane Austen 1819 - "Peterloo Massacre" in Manchester 1812:
Lord Byron, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (cantos 1 and 2)"

Jane Austen, "Pride and Prejudice"

Walter Scott, "Waverley"
Wordsworth, "The Excursion" 1816:
Byron, "Childe Harold (cantos 3 and 4)"
Coleridge, "Christabel" and "Kubla Khan"
Percy Shelley, "Alastor"

Byron, "Manfred"
Coleridge, "Biographia Literaria" and "Sibylline Leaves"
John Keats, "Poems"

Austen, "Northanger Abbey"
Keats, "Endymion"
Mary Shelley, "Frankenstein"

Byron, "Don Juan (cantos 1 and 2) 1820 - Death of George III, accession of George IV 1820 - "London Magazine" founded 1821 - Deaths of Keats in Rome and Napoleon at St. Helena 1822 - Franz Schubert "Unfinished Symphony" 1822 - Death of Percy Shelley in the Bay of Spezia (Italy) 1824 - Death of Byron in Missolonghi 1828 - Parliamentary repeal of the Test and Corporations Acts excluding Dissenters from state offices 1829 - Catholic Emancipation 1820:
Keats, "Lamia", "Isabella", "The Eve of St. Agnes and Other Poems"
Percy Shelley, "Prometheus Unbound"

Percy Shelley, "Adonais" Romantics Victorian Age 20th Century >>
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