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Copy of Foreign Contact: Tang, Yuan and Ming Dynasties
Laurence Tamon 22 March 2013
Transcript of Copy of Foreign Contact: Tang, Yuan and Ming Dynasties
New ideas from foreigners/traders
new religion Isolation from foreigners
protect people from outside contact
travel outside of China forbidden
government desire for uniformity Silk Road = Routes followed by caravans across Central Asia For a period of time, trade along the Silk Road was unsafe because of fighting that occured in Central Asia.
The Tang made the route safer when it took control of much of Central Asia.
As a result, trade flourished with places like Persia and the Byzantine Empire. Cultural Contact Merchants and visitors from the Arabian Peninsula to Korea opened up cultural exchange The upper class especially welcomed new products and ideas SPORTS FOOD RELIGION The Tang also tolerated new religions entering China Buddhism Although Buddhism had come to China hunders of years earlier, under the Tang it became a major part of Chinese life Buddhist monks and nuns came to teach in China
they paid no taxes
ran schools, hospitals and lodgings for travelers
monastaries became very wealthy
Buddhist festivals became popular holidays REACTION TO CULTURAL CONTACT Towards the end of the Tang Dynasty, foreigners and their beliefs were less welcomed restrictions were placed on foreigners when outsiders began attacking China
people began growing upset over the wealth that Buddhists monks enjoyed
when the Tang gov't needed money in 843, it began taking Buddhist property SEA TRADE Despite distrust of foreigners, Chinese continued to trade with foreigners
However, trade shifted from the Silk Road to sea trade between China, India and southeast Asia MONGOLS: OPEN DOOR Cultural Exchange The Mongols welcomed foreigners and traders
Travel along the Silk Road was safe under Mongol rule The Mongols encouraged cultural exchange respected merchants
were welcoming of traders and promoted trade
set up stations along the Silk Road where traders could sleep and eat Christian Missionaries European, Christian missionaries traveled the Silk Road to China
They wanted to convert Chinese to Christianity
They also wanted Kublai Khan and the Mongols to unite with the Europeans against Muslims
The Christian missionaries were unsuccessful at converting the Chinese and getting them to go against Muslims Foreigners Foreigners enjoyed a special status and priveleges Kublai Khan appointed many foreigners to official gov't positions
Marco Polo, an Italian , was the most famous
Polo traveled with his father from Europe through Persia to the Silk Road
He was fascinated by what he saw along the way
When Polo met Khan, Khan was impressed with his accounts of his trip as a result he appointed Polo to go on inspection tours of China Treatment of the Chinese Under the Mongols, the Chinese faced many restrictions Chinese were at bottom of social order
they had to face a harsh rule by foreigners
Chinese could not serve in important gov't positions
Under the Mongol rule, the Chinese grew to resent, or dislike, foreigners MING: CLOSED DOOR The Ming rulers worked to try to isolate China They saw China as the most civilized and important country in the world
They felt that other countries should recognize China's superiority through tribute TRIBUTARIES Under Ming rule, countries that were conquered by China paid tribute to the emperor/empire
In return, Chinese emperors acknowledged other countries rulers
they also provided military help and allowed them to trade with China Zheng He Was a trusted adviser of Emperor Chengzu. The Emperor gave him the task of traveling across the world to display China's wealth and power Zheng He traveled by sea and was known as the Admiral of the Western Seas.
Traveled using more than 300 ships
Zheng He's fleet was the greatest in the world
He brought more than 27,000 men with him
Between 1405-1433, he made 7 trips, or expeditions, traveling to India, the Persian Gulf and Africa Turning Inward When Zheng He died a new emperor was in charge. China needed money to fight off Mongol invasions so they stopped sea expeditions. This was the beginning of China turning inward
The Ming turned inward because they wanted to protect their people from outside invasions and unify their people with traditional values Fall of the Ming The Ming's desire for uniformity made it difficult for the gov't to change in response to new conditions.
The gov't became too rigid to adapt and eventually peasant rebellions helped to bring down the government