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Transcript of Twitter
Agenda Setting Theory
The Technology of Twitter
The Logo Evolution
The Twitter Brand
Technology Profile - Twitter
Kate Bresnahan, Sharon Kyser, Alvey Pratt
COML 509 - Gonzaga University
Influences on Twitter
Can share photos, videos, links
One to many transmission interface
What is Twitter?
Social Implications: Japan, March, 2011
Ethical standards on Twitter should include accuracy, impartiality, fairness, offense, integrity, and privacy (traditional journalism standards).
The 140-character limit affects the context of tweets; hashtags provide limited context.
Reality is complex, and it is difficult to capture a full story in a tweet.
It is difficult to develop points and offer support and arguments in a tweet.
Tweets are instantaneously distributed.
In the latest quarter Twitter earned $0.55 per user. That compares unfavorably with Facebook’s $1.41 per user over the same period.
Twitter earns far more in the United States than in other countries. It gets $2.17 per thousand timeline views in the States, and only $0.30 outside of it.
Of Twitter’s 218 million monthly active users, more than a fifth (49 million) are in the United States.
Twitter has lost money in each of the last three years. Last year it had a net loss of $74 million.
In 2012 Twitter’s CEO made $11.5 million
Series of street demonstrations
Protesting inflation, high unemployment, and lack of free speech.
Government Policy & Regulation
Media Policy: the laws, rules, regulations, and guidelines governing electromagnetic spectrum
Expanded to include World Wide Web and associated tools
As media continues to evolve, media policy lags
Important media policy questions in the "new" media
Intellectual property rights (IPR)
Fair use and other copyright exceptions
Copyright liability of the host platforms
Safety, privacy, identity theft
Regulatory frameworks are needed that balance the rights and interests of suppliers and users, especially regarding protection of IPR
Twitter & Media Policy
Celebrities with large Twitter followings often use Twitter to bring notable causes to their followers' attention.
Twitter in Popular Culture
Launched as a multipurpose tool upon which apps could be built
140 Character limit created "a sort of adrenalized Facebook"
Hardware flexibility was Twitter's strength
By virtue of its open design, social usage options are open
A recent story about accidental sexting on Twitter (source: Twit.TV/YouTube).
Invasion of Privacy
Different types of Legal Issues that Twitter users may encounter:
Jack Dorsey - Founder
Born November 19, 1976 in St. Louis, Missouri
Developed his first software at age 15
Dropped out of New York University
Moved to Oakland, California and formed the company Obvious (evolved into Twitter) with Evan Williams and Biz Stone
Became the first CEO of Twitter
Developed Square, a tiny device that, when plugged into a computer or smartphone, allows people to receive credit card payments
Became a billionaire due to Twitter's initial public offering in 2013
Currently considering an initial public offering for his other company, Square.
In a lucrative 2009 deal, Twitter sold the rights to include tweets in search results to Google and Microsoft.
Twitter's relationship with Google Analytics may help the company strengthen its position in the world of information networking.
A relationship with Google gives Twitter the potential to integrate online advertisements.
Television producers use Twitter to create news and entertainment.
Newspapers use Twitter to signal "trending topics" based on popular tweets; they use Twitter to anticipate and create news.
To remain a leader in information networking, Twitter may form partnerships with major content producers and broadcasting services.
Roger Ebert used Twitter to make zingers and one-liners when he lost his ability to speak.
Michael Jackson's death was one of the most tweeted about stories of 2009.
The post below indicates that news of the earthquake broke on Twitter approximately 20 minutes before the mainstream media carried the story.
The activity level of Twitter during this crisis supports the theory that when mainstream communication fails, social media can serve as a primary communication channel.
During the first forty hours following the earthquake, Twitter messages were primarily about personal experiences. The first ten hours were the most emotional, centered on safety issues, fears and concerns.
Japanese government Twitter communications were related primarily to implementing anti-earthquake measures and only revealed information on the earthquake itself.
Social Implications: Japan, March, 2011
Japan, March, 2011
During times of crisis, individuals become more reliant on mass media
The main goals of individuals were to communicate with family and friends and confirm their safety, and to obtain information about the earthquake
Immediately after the earthquake, e–mail messages and social media were the only means of getting information about the earthquake and communicating with family and friends
Social Implications: Japan, March, 2011
The Twitter User Groups
Japan, March 2011
Twitter saw a 500% increase in Tweets from Japan as people reached out to friends, family and loved ones in the moments after the March 2011 earthquake. This video shows the volume of @replies traveling into and out of Japan in a one-hour period just before and then after the earthquake.
Source - M. Cha, F. Benevenuto, H. Haddadi, K. Gummadi. The World of Connections and Information Flow in Twitter. (2012)
Three Distinct User Groups
Mass Media – who can reach a large audience, but do not follow others actively.
Grassroots – who are not followed by a large number of users, but have the largest presence on the network
Evangelists – who are socially well connected and take part in information flow like opinion leaders.
Twitter blocks accounts critical of Turkish government
Twitter said in a tweet on its policy feed: “Reminder: Our Country Content Withheld Policy means we act after due process, e.g., a court order. We don’t withhold content at the mere request of a gov’t official and we may appeal a court order when it threatens freedom of expression,”
Varies from country to country
Inconsistent treatment within governments
Terror & Crime Networks
Freedom to Communicate
Protection of Power
National Police Day protests
Police abuse, unemployment, corruption, lack of political freedoms
Twitter was used as an activist tool during the Arab Spring uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt
9 out of 10 of surveyed Egyptians and Tunisians were using SMS to organize protests or spread awareness about them. (Source: Arab Social Media Report)
Thank You for Watching!
Alvey, Kate, & Sharon
Twitter positioned itself as an autonomous brand
Click-on T-button established twittering as a global online practice
Integrated into Facebook and Google because of high brand recognition
Rebranded in 2012 with a new bird
Originally known as Larry the Bird
Now simply known as Twitter Bird
Appleby, L. (2012). Connecting the last mile: The role of communications in the Great East Japan Earthquake. Internews Europe. Retrieved from https://www.internews.org/sites/default/files/resources/InternewsEurope_Report_Japan_Connecting%20the%20last%20mile%20Japan_2013.pdf).
Bhasin, K. (2012, February 6). 13 Epic Twitter Fails By Big Brands - Business Insider. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.businessinsider.com/13-epic-twitter-fails-by-big-brands-2012-2?op=1
Biography.com. (2014). Jack Dorsey Biography. Retrieved 10:39 p.m., April 8, 2014, from http://www.biography.com/people/jack-dorsey-578280#billionaire-businessman&awesm=~oCA4PPTLiz3qAL.
Cho, Seong Eun; Jung, Kyujin and Park, Han Woo. (2011). Social media use during Japan's 2011 earthquake: How Twitter transforms the locus of crisis communication [online]. Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture & Policy, No. 149, 28-40. Availability: <http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=738278142741615;res=IELLCC> ISSN: 1329-878X.
Dijck, J. v. (2013). The culture of connectivity : A critical history of social media. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=564208&site=ehost-live
Duggan, M., & Smith, A. (2013, December 30). Social Media Update 2013. Pew Research Centers Internet American Life Project RSS. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/12/30/social-media-update-2013/
Hendricks, J. A., & Noor Al-Deen, H. S. (2012). Social media : Usage and impact. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=405944&site=ehost-live
Huang, C. (2011, June 6). Facebook and Twitter key to Arab Spring uprisings: report | The National. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae‑news/facebook‑and‑twitter‑key‑to‑arab‑spring‑uprisings‑report
IEEE transactions on systems, man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and humans publication information. (2012). IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics: Part A, 42(4), C2-C2. doi:10.1109/TSMCA.2012.2202816
Jung, J. (2012) Social media use and goals after the Great East Japan Earthquake. First Monday, 17(8). Retrieved from: http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/4071/3285
Lotan, G., Graeff, E., Ananny, M., Gaffney, D., Pearce, I., & boyd, d. (2011). The Arab Spring| The Revolutions Were Tweeted: Information Flows during the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions. International Journal Of Communication, 5, 31. Retrieved from http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/1246/613
Nicolas, E. (2010). A Practical Framework for Preventing "Mistrial by Twitter''. Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal. 28(2), 385-416.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Participative web: User-created content. DSTI/ICCP/IE(2006)7/Final. Retrieves from: http://www.oecd.org/internet/ieconomy/38393115.pdf
Freedom of Speech
User names - @username
Hashtags - #hashtag
Terror & Crime Networks
Writer-Editor, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
BA, English, University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth
Living in Arlington, VA
Alvey Pratt @Akrazzy
Boeing Technology Services, General Manager
BA Marketing, UOP
Living in Seattle, WA
Sharon R. Kyser @srkyser
#BVU Authority, #Broadband
BS Marketing, Christian Brothers University
MBA, University of Phoenix
Corporate Twitter Fails