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Copy of The Korean War
Transcript of Copy of The Korean War
1950 - 1953 Ready Set Go Freedom! Causes The forgotten War The USA In 1945, Korea was freed from the Japanese.
In 1910, Korea had been annexed by the Japanese. When
Japan surrendered, the question arose: what to do with
The US and the USSR agreed to divide Korea at the 38th
parallel as the line went roughly through the middle of the
country. They decided to occupy the country until it was
ready for political independence. "The Korean War was the first major armed clash between Free World and Communist forces, as the so-called Cold War turned hot."
From a pamphlet by John J. McGrath of U.S. Army Center of Military History,
written to honour Korean War veterans (2003). The North Kim Il-Sung (1912 - 1994)
was the first premier of
North Korea. He led
Communist North Korea,
backed by the Russians. In 1948, the USSR declared the
"Democratic People's Republic of Korea 'DPRK'. The South In response to the USSR, the USA created the
Republic of Korea in the south. Syngmann Rhee led South Korea. He was
an American-educated President of the
Korean government in exile from 1919. 1. Domino theory: If one country fell
to communism, the others would quickly
2. The American government wanted
to undermine communism. In fact, in
April 1950, the American National
Security Council issued a report in
which they recommended America
abandon 'containment' and start
'rolling back' communism. This report
is known as NSC 68 and largely shaped
US foreign policy for the next 20 years.
3. Communist-Capitalist tensions:
By now, it was clear there was a Cold
War going on. Korea was just the excuse
needed to set things off.
4. US Evacuation of troops:
After the Soviets declared the DPRK, it became clear there was no chance of reuniting Korea. In 1948 the US began to evacuate the troops, believing that nothing was going to happen. This made it Kim and the USSR believe that the US would not take action if Kim were to attempt to unify the country by force. Kim also went to the Chinese, stirring up trouble.
5. In 1950, Syngman Rhee boasted that he would invade North Korea. This was all the excuse Kim Il-Sung needed to attack. This map was published in an American magazine
in November 1950. Proxy war: a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. Russia was led by Stalin The US was led by Truman, and
later Eisenhower 25th June 1950: North Korea attacked South Korea. The North Korean
People's Army (NKPA) easily defeated the Republic of Korea's army. (ROK)
27th June 1950: America persuades the UN to pass a resolution supporting South Korea. The Americans sent troops to reinforce the
South Korean troops at Pusan.
29 June 1950: Seould falls to the NKPA
7 July 1950: United Nations Command created, under General Douglas MacArthur.
17 August 1950: Hill 303 Massacre
15th September 1950: American General MacArthur led a UN amphibious landing at Inchon (near Seoul) behind the NKPA. In danger of being cut off, the NKPA had to retreat.The Americans drove them back and recaptured Seoul two weeks later
7 October 1950 MacArthur invaded North Korea. He advanced as far as the Chinese border.
25 November 1950 200,000 Chinese troops ('People's Volunteers') attacked MacArthur.
14 December 1950: UN passes a Cease Fire resolution
31 December 1950 half a million more Chinese troops entered the war and attacked the Americans. They drove the Americans back (using 'human wave tactics'). They recaptured North Korea, and advanced into South Korea.
1 February 1950: The UN passes a resolution to end the Korean War
March 1951 - MacArthur reached the 38th parallel and wished to continue forward in order to completely defeat both China and North Korea.
11 April 1951 - Truman relieves MacArthur.
1952 - Various offensives, prison camp riots.
15 - 27 November 1952 - POW Olympics were held by Communists.
In 1953, Eisenhower became American president. The Americans threatened to use the atomic bomb if China did not stop fighting.
The Chinese agree to a truce, which was signed on 27 July 1953.
Human Wave Tactics: a frontal assault by densely concentrated infantry formations against an enemy line, without any attempts to shield or to mask the attacker's movement. The goal of the human wave attack is to maneuver as many men as possible into melee range, hoping that the shock from a large mass of attackers engaged in melee combat would force the enemy to disintegrate or fall back. 150 000 casualties
Huge debts, without having actually 'liberated' North Korea
The message behing NSC-68 was confirmed for Americans, with its call for US to expand its military
and to lead an anticommunist alliance. Defense budgets were enlarged and military strength was increased significantly. South Korea was liberated and safe from communist
The USSR US -Chinese conflict was to the USSR's
advantage, but their relations with the Chinese
had spoiled slightly.
Forced into expensive arms race with America
Allowed the Soviets to test several new types
of arnaments and also capture American
military equipment. Korea 1.3 million South Korean soldiers killed;
520,000 North Korean soldiers;
Over 3 million civilian casualties.
Much industry destroyed, agriculture ruined, millions of refugees
Economic and social repercussions
were severe for both the North and South
The country was split in half.
China China had sent some of it's best units to join
the war. Their losses exposed the extent of their
weakness in terms of firepower, air support,
logistics, and communication. As a result, China
implemented reforms including the appointment
of a defense minister, modernizing weaponry, and
changing methods of training and discipline.
It was the first time that China had been able to
hold it's own in a conflict with Western powers. The UN 17 000 casualties
Achieved joint action by
Gained approval for acting