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Cold War conflicts
Transcript of Cold War conflicts
April 1945, San Francisco
October 1945 ratification United Nations Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech "A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victories. . . . From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” Truman Doctrine “The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife...The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms." $400 million in aid = $3.2 billion today! Marshall Plan “It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace...Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” –George C. Marshall Modernization of industrial equipment
sound currencies and national budgets
Expansion of trade
Increased economic cooperation in Europe
Fewer restrictions in foreign trade
Increase in production
Improvement in transport The so-called Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan are particularly glaring examples of the manner in which the principles of the United Nations are violated, of the way in which the organization is ignored...it is becoming more and more evident to everyone that the implementation of the Marshall Plan will mean placing European countries under the economic and political control of the United States."
- Andrei Vyshinsky, Soviet spokesman, at the United Nations 1949 Division of Germany
Berlin Airlift NATO Article 5 states: "An armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all." 1950 1953 1952 Korean War, 1950-1953 America's Forgotten War? Proxy war
division at Potsdam
UN sent troops (most from the US)
Korea split at 38th parallel (and still is)
North under influence of Soviet Union and China (Communist) with leader Kim Il Sung
South under influence of United States (anti-Communist) with leader Syngman Rhee
Territory changed hands several times
Stalemate, war ended with armistice Eisenhower Elected Former General Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president in November 1952 with a pledge to go to Korea and end the war. Stalin Dies Warsaw Pact “Treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance” 1956 Suez Crisis Gamal Abdul Nasser (Nationalist) took over Egypt
officially recognized China
US and UK pulled funding for Aswan Dam
Nasser nationalized Suez Canal
Britain, France and Israel attack Egypt, seize the Suez Canal
forced to withdraw under pressure from the US.
balance of power shifted away from Britain and France toward the US and USSR 1954 France's war in Vietnam ($$$ from USA) lead to two countries in 1956 Communist/Nationalist conflict in China end in 1949 with Communist victory 1957 Sputnik 1958 Beginning of Space Race Explorer I 1959 Cuban Revolution Revolution in Cuba successfully overthrew the US supported government. Fidel Castro became premier and later communist dictator of Cuba. Modern kitchens are one of the most important weapons in the “psychological battle to win the uncommitted nations to the free way of life. . . .It is one of the wonders of the world that Americans in every economic strata have kitchens with labor-saving devices which free the American woman from drudgery, which make the kitchen the heart of the home.” – Katherine Howard (2nd deputy commissioner of the exhibition). American Exposition in Moscow Does power always involve high politics?
What is “soft power”?
Cultural diplomacy Who started the Korean War?
Should America have been involved?
Why ios this war "forgotten?"