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Copy of World War II

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Molly Sanders

on 13 January 2017

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Transcript of Copy of World War II

World War II
Chronology from http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007306


Washington Naval Conference- limit size of Navy, 9 nations involved, led by Pres. Harding
“Good Neighbor Policy”- US would not interfere in Latin America
US did engage internationally with this:
Kellog-Briand Pact- signed by 62 nations to renounce war
Examples of Appeasement
Germany annexes Austria to cheers and parades
War on the Home Front
Joseph Stalin
Russian Dictator, totalitarian, 5'4"
“A single death is a tragedy, a million dead is a statistic.”

Turned Russia industrial instead of agricultural- many died
"Great Terror of the 1930's"- purge of enemies within government
Fan of purges and gulags

Russia After WWI
Bolshevik Revolution- part of larger Russian Revolution of 1917
Communists seize power, led by Vladimir Lenin
Tsar and family and Rasputin killed
Communists seize power
nationlize banks
seize private property
seize church property
Wages fixed at high rate, 8 hr workday
Sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- Germany got lots of Russian land- but they got it back at Versailles
Benito Mussolini aka Il Duce
Italian Dictator, Fascist
Fascism= a way of organizing a society in which a government ruled by a dictator controls the lives of the people and in which people are not allowed to disagree with the government
Was Socialist, kicked out of party for supporting WWI
"Black Shirts" para-military unit that spread fascism
Declared himself dictator

Adolf Hitler aka Fuhrer
Germany Humiliated by violence and blame of WW1
Born in Austria
Failed artist
Good soldier
Failed revolutionary
wrote Mein Kampf in jail
Took power LEGALLY
HATED results of WWI
blamed it for Germany economic problems
Hideki Tojo
Emperor Hirohito
Symbolic(?) leader
War-time leader
Prime Minister
Japan in a time of expansion leading up to the war
Fighting with China
Tensions with Russia
League of Nations
No US or Russia
Result: Collective Security (Work together to prevent war) fails
Germany and Japan leave L of N in the 1930's
Hitler Expands Germany
Giving Hitler what he wants makes him want more
Munich Conference
Terrors in Germany
Night of the Long Knives 1934
After securing power, Hitler purges those who helped him get to power, including Ernst Rohm, head of SA.
SS becomes the powerful group under Hitler
Nuremberg Race Laws 1935
Jews stripped of rights
Gestapo above the Law 1936
Reichstag burns, Nazis in power, Concentration Camps open 1933
Kristallnacht 1938
Jewish stores vandalized, owners harmed/killed
Germany occupies Sudetenland
Part of Czechoslovakia, Germans claimed the people there are German descendants
British and French leaders gave Hitler part of Czechoslovakia
1939- Hitler demands territory in Poland
Signs non-aggression pact with Stalin, secretly agreeing to invade Poland and divide it
Germany invades Poland in September 1939
France and Britain declare war on Germany
German War Strategy
Blitzkrieg- Lightning War
Poles and French quickly defeated
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Picking Sides
America Stays Neutral
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939

Prohibited selling of arms to countries at war (1935)
Prohibited loans/credit to belligerent nations (1936)
Prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of nations at war (1937)
“Cash and Carry”
Roosevelt delivers “Quarantine” Speech in 1937, Japan invades China
Embargo lifted for arms trade (1939)

Flying Tigers
Flying Tigers- volunteer pilots Send supplies and engage in combat with Japanese pilots
led by Claire Chennault
Destroy almost 300 Japanese aircrafts
Most Americans still want to avoid involvement in the War
Preparing for War
US began to prepare for war in the event they were brought in
Army and Navy funding
Peacetime draft
Roosevelt runs for his 3rd Term
Lend-Lease Act
Sell, lend or lease war materials to nations who’s “defense is vital to the US”
American ships protected British ships with supplies
George Marshall
Chief of Staff
“Organizer of Victory

Signed by Churchill and Roosevelt
Freedom of the Seas, no territorial gains and an end to war
Laid the foundation for United Nations

Atlantic Charter-1941
December 7, 1941- US Enters War
Japanese tensions mount
Japan invades China
US places embargo on Japan
Dec 7, 1941- Japanese attack US at Pearl Harbor
“The date which will live in infamy”-FDR
Germany and Italy declare war on US
US engaged in a 2 front war:
Europe Theater (or Front) Offensive
Pacific Theater (or Front) Defensive- to start

Meanwhile, in Russia...
Hitler has stabbed Stalin in the back
Operation Barbarossa
Germans get to Moscow suburbs,before driven back
Various sieges will begin- catastrophic results for both sides
Begins June of 1941
War Bonds
Finance the war
Rationing of goods
Ensure all goods are conserved for war
Victory Gardens
Conserve food
Citizens do their part
The War At Home
Office of War Information
Controlled the content of war messages
Created Pro-ally and Anti- axis war propaganda
Voice of America-bolster allies in Europe
Sent messages overseas to stir up distrust of Axis powers
Women in the War
WACS- Women’s Army Corps
Women replaced jobs held by men
Nearly 350,000 American women served in uniform, both at home and abroad, volunteering for the newly formed Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACs, later renamed the Women’s Army Corps), the Navy Women’s Reserve (WAVES), the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve, the Coast Guard Women’s Reserve (SPARS), the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPS), the Army Nurses Corps, and the Navy Nurse Corps. General Eisenhower felt that he could not win the war without the aid of the women in uniform. “The contribution of the women of America, whether on the farm or in the factory or in uniform, to D-Day was a sine qua non of the invasion effort.” (Ambrose, D-Day, 489)
From: http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-students/ww2-history/at-a-glance/women-in-ww2.html
Minority Rights During the War
1 million African Americans served in segregated units, like the Tuskegee Airmen who saw combat in North Africa and Europe
Executive order 8802-
Prohibited racial discrimination in defense industry and federal positions
Pressure from A. Phillip Randolph
Double V Campaign
Victory on the battlefield and at home

Racially motivated distrust of the Japanese Americans
Executive Order 9066
Required Japanese Americans to relocate to internment camps away from West Coast
Korematsu v US-
Ruled that internment of Japanese was constitutional during time of war

Mexican Americans
Fought in all major war campaigns
Still faced discrimination
Native Americans
Navajo Code Talkers

of Pacific Front
Battle of Midway
US cracked Japanese code and knew the attack was coming
Admiral Chester Nimitz commanded US Naval forces
US destroys four Japanese Aircraft carriers
Ended Japanese strength in Pacific
June 1942
Guadalcanal- Pacific Theater
Bataan Death March- Pacific Front
April 10, 1942-ca April 15, 1942
Japan had invaded Philippines after PH
US and Filipino forces surrender
(12,000 U.S. and 66,000 Filipino)
Denied most food and water
Guards made sport of hurting and killing
65 mile march to railroad- jammed 115 men into boxcars designed for 30-40
Marched 7 more miles to Camp O'Donnell
As many as 11,000 POWs died on the march, double that in captivity

US begins campaign on other Japanese Islands
Focused on Solomon Islands, taking Guadalcanal
These efforts drained Japanese resources, prevented them reaching Australia
US Regains Philippines and Guam

Native Americans
Left reservations to serve in defense fields
Navajo Code Talkers
Used in Guadacanal, and all other major Pacific Theater Battles

El Alamein
October 23-24, 1942
British drove Axis armies out of Egypt toward Tunisia
Allowed for US troops to arrive
Led by British Lt. Gen. "Monty" Montgomery
George Patton
Ol' Blood and Guts
Leader of 3rd Army in Europe that invaded North Africa and Italy
landed in Morocco and Algeria November 8, 1942
Quickly defeat Vichy French troops
Vichy was the German appointed French Govt.
June 28, 1942-February 2, 1943
1942-Germans launch attack on Stalingrad
Soviets fight back, but lost most of the city
Soviets launch a counter-attack in November
Soviets take advantage of the harsh winter
Red Army launches final assault
January 31. 1943-Germans surrender at Stalingrad
Turning point for Allies in Europe
350,000 Germans went in, only 90,000 survived
Stalingrad pop.-1940=850,000, 1945= 1,500

Liberation of Italy
Patton's 3rd Army- Italy surrenders to Allies
Mussolini Deposed, held under house arrest
Hitler rescues and makes him head of "puppet government in North"
Fighting continues against allies
D-Day, Normandy
June 6, 1944
Roosevelt’s goal: Defeat Germany First!
D-Day: June 6, 1944- 156,000 allied troops land on 5 beaches in Normandy, France
Dwight D. Eisenhower- General in charge
Omar Bradley- led 1st American army in France
Allies moved westward to liberate Paris from German control

Battle of the Bulge
December 16, 1944- January 25, 1945
Battle of the Bulge-
Germans counter-attack
200,000 troops, 1,000 tanks
Break the lines of Allies
Hitler used English speaking troops to confuse
Patton frees Bastogne, 2nd Armored stopped the tanks
General Bradley pushes troops into Germany
Vernon Baker
Medal of Honor Winner-
He and 6 other African Americans received the award from Bill Clinton in 1997
He was the only living recipient of the 7
Part of the segregated 270th Regiment of the 92nd Infantry Division, the first black unit to go into combat in WWII.
Battle at Viareggio, Italy, he killed or wounded 9 enemy while clearing numerous machine gun nests- almost single handedly
And drew fire so wounded could escape
Then voluntarily led troops through heavy fire and mine fields- the next day
Fall of Germany
March7-May 7, 1945
French, British and US forces lead invasion from West, Soviet forces lead from East
April 30- Hitler commits suicide
May 1945- Allies (Russia) capture Berlin
Germans surrender May 7 to Western Allies, May 9 to the Russians

Island Hopping
War Strategy commanded by Douglas MacArthur
February-May 1945- US captures Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Intense fighting, lots of hills to take

The Atomic Bomb
Along with missiles, this is the new weapons tech of the war
Einstein speculates that Germany has access to this bomb
Einstein had fled Germany, Enrico Fermi fled Italy- initially they had the idea
Alerted FDR of US need to process atomic weapons
Manhattan Project
Headed at Los Alamos by Robert Oppenheimer
Upon seeing the blast, he said "I am become death, the destroyer of worlds."
Started by FDR- but he died in April 1945
Harry Truman as President continues.
Planned to use on Germany, but they surrendered
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Bomb on Hiroshima- August 6, 1945
Bomb on Nagasaki- August 9, 1945
http://www.aasc.ucla.edu- toll conservative, could be as high as 250,000
September 2, 1945, Japan formally surrenders
The Holocaust
Attempt to murder an entire people or nationality
Used concentration camps and death camps

First one discovered by Russians was Majdanek in July 1944
First US liberated camp was Ohrdruf, a Buchenwald subcamp
Hitler’s “Final Solution”
Nuremburg Trials (1945-1946)
Surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial for “crimes against humanity”
Many sentenced to years in prison and Death
“Denazification” of Germany
Germany is split into four zones, each occupied by Allies
US occupies Japan
MacArthur assigned to rebuilding and reforming Japan
Military leaders put on trial and punished
Less aggressive
22nd Amendment - term limits on President after FDR wins 4th term
US becomes superpower
Legacy of World War II
Trials and Rebuilding
Battle Deaths: 15,000,000
Battle Wounded: 25,000,000
Civilian Deaths: 45,000,000

Death Toll by Country (Major only, military and civilian):
US: 418,500
Britain: 450,700
Italy: 457,000
France: 567,600
Philippines: 500,000-1,000,000
Yugoslavia: 1,000,000
French Indo-China: 1-1,500,000
India: 1,500,000-2,500,000
Japan: 2,600,000-3,100,000
Dutch East Indies: 3-4,000,000
Poland: 5,600,000
Germany: 6,600,000-8,800,000
China: 20,000,000
Russia: 24,000,000- soldiers= 8.8-10.7 mil

Source: http://www.nationalww2museum.org
Japanese Imperialism
Japan wanted to reassert it's national power through expansion throughout Asia
Natural Resources and Markets

1931- Japan invades Manchuria and sets up "puppet state"
1937- Japan invades China at Nanjing
Italy Invades Ethiopia
1935-Mussolini invades Ethiopia, League does almost nothing
Increased Production
War Production Board
Oversees conversion of Peacetime to Wartime
Office of War Mobilization
Oversees regulation of businesses for the war effort
"Production Miracle"
Ended Great Depression, American production levels were double of the Axis powers

War Technology- WW2
Radar- helped Allies locate enemy aircraft and ships

Penicillin- to help keep diseases from spreading

Jet engines
Calculating Machines for Code Breaking
WW2 in North Africa
North Africa
Feb. 1943
Americans move land in N. Africa
Afrika Korps (German), under Erwin Rommel, break American lines at Kasserine Pass-
Patton brought in
Americans are able to stop the attack, Rommel is forced to retreat
Axis Surrender
May 1943
Patton takes Command at North Africa
Omar Bradley
American forces advance eastward and trap Germans
May 1943: Axis powers surrender
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