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Transcript of Music Education
Identity is defined as "the fact of being who or what a person or thing is." In the realm of teaching, identity can mean what a person believes a teacher should be and why. Linda K. Thompson states that "while the study of teacher beliefs can be messy, 'properly assessed and investigated teacher beliefs can be...the single most important construct in educational research." Knowing who you are as a teacher and what you believe is extremely important. What's more important, however, is being open to changing what you believe and growing through that change. As a person, it is important to expand your mind and be open to change. It is especially important as a teacher to constantly be growing and developing.
(State and National)
The national Standards are a guideline for schools all over the country to follow in order to help students understand music. National Standards include: singing alone and with others, performing on instruments alone and with others, improvising, composing, reading and notating music, evaluating music and music performance, understanding relationships between music and arts, and understanding music in relation to history and culture. Colorado State Standards include: expression of music, theory of music, creation of music, and aesthetic appreciation of music. To quote Paul Lehman: "The standards were never intended to reflect status quo, but rather to provide a vision for the future." They're the ideas of what music education should look like in America.
By Andria Hall
Lehman, P. (2008). A Vision for the Future: Looking at the Standards. Music Educators Journal, 94(4), 28-32. Retrieved January 21, 2013
"Music is a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy." - Ludwig van Beethoven
Thompson, L. (2007). Considering Beliefs in Learning to Teach Music. Music Educators Journal, 93(3), 30. Retrieved January 21, 2012
Basic Learning Theories
The three main categories for learning theories are cognitive, constructivist, and behavioral. Each category offers a different approach to teaching an ensemble or student. It is ideal to use all three in a classroom, but in the appropriate setting. People who stand out in the development of learning theories include Ivan Pavlov, Howard Gardner, Jerome Bruner, Benjamin Bloom, Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget came up with the Stages of Development theory, which basically split people up into different categories based upon their age. This was extremely important to education because before this, students were treated the same even though their brains were at different stages of development. Howard Gardner's learning theory is that there are multiple forms of intelligences, including linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, musical, naturalist, and existentialist. Learning theories are extremely important to the musical world because it helps us understand the mind better, and thus, we are able to teach more effectively.
Classroom management is extremely important in music education. Not only do the classrooms tend to have a larger amount of students, but it is also very performance-based. If classroom management techniques are not in effect, learning does not occur. William Bauer believes that "teachers skilled in classroom management, regardless of the subject area, are proactive."
Bauer, W. (2001). Classroom Management for Ensembles. Music Educators Journal, 87(6), 29. Retrieved December 1, 2010
Observing and Analyzing
Observing teachers in the everyday classroom is a very important part of becoming an effective teacher. By analyzing a teachers methods and pedagogy, a student can gain a new perspective on teaching. They are also able to continue their growth by adding to their teaching repertoire. When a student observes a teacher, they may also form opinions on what they find to be effective in the classroom, and what they would do differently, which also helps develop and solidify the students beliefs.
What is an Effective Teacher?
An effective teacher is a teacher who strives to meet the needs of every student. They are able to communicate daily classroom goals through SWBAT. (Students Will Be Able To...) They are also able to create an effective lesson plan for each class that will give the students the best opportunities for learning. This lesson plan should include an anticipatory set, procedures, assessments, materials, the setting, rationale, standards, and a closure. While assessing the students, the teacher must use either formative (monitoring student learning), summative (evaluating student learning), or diagnostic assessment (pre-assessment). Effective teachers genuinely care about their students and do anything and everything they can to assure their students are receiving the best possible education.
Planning is key. In order to be an effective teacher, the educator must have a plan for each class. What are the goals for student learning? How will you know they're learning anything? How do you create a positive learning environment? All of these questions can be answered through a thorough lesson plan. Students can usually tell when a teacher is just "winging it." Without a clear plan, a teacher finds that there are limitations in how effective they are being. Planning for each class is crucial.
In choral music, there are many unique obstacles a teacher must face. The biggest obstacle is the fact that in singing, the students instrument is in their body - it's not visible. This creates a challenge for the teacher because it's harder to diagnose a problem because the teacher cannot visibly see what's happening. The teacher must take the visual evidence they can see (posture, breath intake, mouth shape, etc.) and the auditory evidence, and diagnose the problems through that. Choral music is also a challenge because everybody's instrument is different, therefore blending may become an issue. It is the teachers job to educate the students of all of these challenges so the student can be more aware of how to create the best sound within an ensemble. Choral teaching may also be challenging because the students don't usually need prior experience with music or choir. In high school, often times students join choir as a "slacker" class to get an elective credit out of the way. This proves to be challenging for the teacher because those students do not truly care about the music, and it's harder to get them motivated to create the best sound. A teacher must also be aware of the students limitations with vocal music. Otherwise, the educator could end up harming a students voice. With all of these challenges, choral teaching is very rewarding and can be a way for students who have never been in an ensemble to experience it.
Keenan-Takagi, K. (2000). Embedding Assessment in Choral Teaching. Music Educators Journal, 86(4), 42.
The three forms of assessment are formative, summative, and diagnostic. Formative assessment is basically the most effective way to provide feedback for the students and the teachers. An example of this could be an in-class performance, or a quiz. Summative assessment is an exam with specified totals or levels of proficiency. This would be a high-stake test. Diagnostic assessment is a way for the teacher to see what the student knows. An example of this could include a pretest. Assessing students is a great way to not only help the students grow through helping them see what they've learned, but it's also a wonderful way for a teacher to see what they could improve upon and what the students don't understand. Teachers are able to reflect upon what they could have done better by seeing what the students didn't understand.
Philosophy in itself is usually a challenging subject, but pondering philosophy in music education proves to be especially challenging. A teaching philosophy is a guide for a teacher to follow, including beliefs of how a classroom should be taught, and beliefs of why the subject is important. A strong philosophical stance must be thorough and well thought out, answering questions such as "what does student participation look like?" and "what are the responsibilities of a teacher?" A teacher must know the answer to these questions, and must hold them as truths within themselves. Philosophy of music education should always have room for growth, but should beliefs within the philosophy should be solid, like the mind of a teacher.
My generation is the age of technology. We do everything via text, email, or facebook. Four of my six finals are being submitted electronically. Twenty years ago, almost my entire lifetime, we didn't have this technology. My generation is extremely lucky to have the technology we have today. Although there are some drawbacks to technology, I believe that it is extremely important to use technology as a resource in music education. It can help advance the way we look at music education, as well as the way we teach it. Relying on technology and using it are two very different things. A classroom shouldn't rely on technology - it should simply use technology to better the understanding of every aspect of music.
You may have noticed that the design of this Prezi is in a spiral. That's because of Jerome Bruner's idea of a spiral curriculum. The spiral is formative assessment, as well as development. Within the spiral, there are certain benchmarks, where the each section of the spiral intersects one another. Summative assessment is on the top and bottom of the spiral. The spirals structure is strong, and represents what a curriculum should look like. A curriculum is a way for classrooms to meet specific educational outcomes. Therefore, each classroom should try to mirror each others curriculum for the best possible outcome in the most organized manner. However, music is different for core classes. Music education is always changing, especially when it comes to curriculum.
Diversity and Exceptionalities
An exceptionality can be defined as a strength or need common to a group of students. Learning exceptionalities can include autism, hearing impairments, ADHD, communication disorders, and many more. It is important for a teacher to carefully evaluate a students strengths and weaknesses in order to insure they are receiving the best education possible. This may include making a classroom wheelchair accessible, or maybe changing the lesson plan to better meet the needs of the exceptional student. For example, if a student has ADHD, it is important to incorporate high and low interest activities into the lesson plan. That way, it is easier for the student to focus on the new dynamic of the classroom.
Teaching elementary school music can be a very fun way to introduce music to children. It is extremely important to remember that students in elementary school are capable of so much. As long as educators give them the tools to appreciate music and enjoy it, we have the opportunity to create a generation of students who crave music the way a music educator should. Three important people in the development of elementary school music include Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, Carl Orff, and Zoltan Kodaly. Kodaly's approach to music education was that "it should be accessible to everyone, not just the talented few." Orff believed that music, movement, and speech went hand in hand. Children express themselves in those ways. Jaques-Dalcroze believed that rhythm=motion; that the body is a musical instrument in itself. Through these perspectives, elementary school music educators can create the best learning environment for their young students.
"Education is not
preparation for life;
education is life itself."
In cognitive learning, the student learns by watching, reading or experiencing. In Piagets Genetic Epistemology theory, he believes that children are young scientists, discovering the world. Cognitive capabilities emerge in an orderly fashion because students must master one way of thinking in order to move on to the next. (stages of development)
Vygotsky's theory of Sociocultural Development is basically the belief that development happens because we exist in a society. Cognitive learning takes place when prior knowledge is placed in context with new knowledge. There is a process that takes place in the learning.
Behavioral learning is when the students do drills, games, tutorials, or programmed instruction in order to learn something. A well-known example of this would be Pavlov's dog. In short, Pavlov rang a bell every time the dogs ate. When he took food out of the equation and just rang the bell, the dog still salivated. The bell generated a response because of the repetition.
I plan on educating the students on the state and national standards for music education. It is so important for them to know what they are in order create goals for themselves. It is not enough for me to just tell them what they are - they need to understand them thoroughly. I want my students to have goals and aspirations, and I believe incorporating the standards will allow for them to dream big. Following the standards in my classroom will also help the music program at my school excel.
The standards were created as goals so music programs could grow and become more responsible for student learning in the music realm. They are a challenging goal to be met, but still attainable. Having high aspirations for music education in schools could help with constraints such as social staus.
How do the national standards for music
education in other countries compare to ours?
What state has the best overall music education program in public schools? Or, which state follows the standards with the most dedication?
Here are some links to what I found helpful in answering these questions.
Observing teachers in my college classrooms will help me with my future pedagogy. When observing my teachers, I can add to my repertoire sheet and thus create a more effective classroom in my future.
Observing teachers allows for the student to be more open to new ideas and perspectives about teaching. It will allow the students to learn more effectively.
How can I observe my teachers in the most effective fashion, while still paying attention to the subject? I've never been good at multitasking, and this semester I found that while analyzing teacher behavior, I drifted off into thinking more about music education and my teaching repertoire than the subject the teacher was teaching. It was a challenge for me to find a balance between over-analyzing and not analyzing enough.
Always growing, always changing.
This is a video about teacher observation. Although this is a principal evaluating a teacher, it still applies to my question.
Caring about students is a vital part of being an effective teacher. I believe in showing compassion as a human being. Teaching should be no different. The best teachers I've had have been the most compassionate people that I know. I also plan on mastering the art of lesson planning. I believe in preparedness for the sake of organization. When I get in front of a group of people and I'm ill prepared, I am extremely nervous and it's very ineffective. I would like to have all the qualities of an effective teacher, because I want to be there for my students in an educational and personal aspect.
An effective teacher knows what each student needs. If they don't know, then they find out what they need and do their best to cater to that. While the lesson plan is a vital part of the classroom, an effective teacher recognizes that he/she must look beyond the physical lesson plan, and delve into the actual learning. The lesson plan is the guide for learning, and having a guide is imperative. But learning must take place first and foremost.
What qualities do the best teachers possess? This is a very broad question and could be answered by my own philosophy and pedagogy section,but I want to know more.
By observing teachers, I can find new was of assessing my students. Different ways of assessment can be very beneficial for student learning, and adding that to my lesson plan will help me be prepared. When I create a lesson plan, I can have my peers and teachers review it and give me feedback so that I can really master my lesson planning skills.
Being prepared is a vital part of teaching and students know when a teacher is not prepared.
What does technology have to offer in the world of lesson planning? (other than microsoft word)
Here is a link to my final practicum lesson plan. There is certainly room for growth.
Learning students names can be very effective in classroom management. In high school, it was always interesting to see that teachers always knew the names of the students who misbehaved first. It's important to know everyone's name, especially when practicing effective classroom management. Remaining calm is also vitally important. If a teacher is angry at a student, it is important for the teacher to not impulsively react. If a teacher yells at a student, generally that student and their friends tend to dislike that teacher. Likeability is important in the classroom, so it's important to not lose your temper.
Classroom management is about ensuring that a class runs smoothly despite interruptions. If there are interruptions, strategies for classroom management allow a teacher to deal with those interruptions. Silence is a great way for the teacher to help a student. When faced with a problem in classroom management, the teacher can stay quiet at appropriate times, and let the student express their opinions and feelings. It also creates an environment that is more open and honest for the student. That's not to say the teacher should be silent always, but it's important to allow the student to solve problems on their own and talk through their issues.
How can I help refocus a class if I have a music ensemble at a time like after lunch? (students are always rowdy after lunch and towards the end of the school day)
This video is a bit quirky, but if I ever teach percussion ensemble or band to a middle school, I feel this could be a very fun and effective way to refocus the students.
In order to apply basic learning theories in my future pedagogy, I incorporate all of the learning theories into my classroom, and experiment with which I think is most effective. I also need to research the theories and the people behind the theories a bit further.
While employing learning theories from experts such as Piaget and Pavlov is important, it's also important to develop your own learning theories as a teacher.
This question cannot be answered with a link, but with personal experience. I would like to know if my teachers gravitate towards a specific learning theory and why.
Assessing students is very important, but can sometimes be very intimidating. Personally, I enjoy pretests as a student because it gives me an idea of the topic we're going to learn about in that class, as well as provides feedback on how much I already know about the topic. Diagnostic testing is certainly going to be a prominent form of assessment in my future classroom. I also like formative assessment, as it is low-stake, yet provides feedback. Summative assessment, while extremely important, is very high-stake and is intimidating for students. I will have summative assessment in my classroom, but mostly in the form of projects and performances rather than written tests. It is extremely terrifying to me that my job could be on the line because of a high-stake state test, but it makes sense since I am responsible for student learning.
Assessment is important, especially in the music realm. It is my philosophy that everyday is an assessment in the musical classroom. The ensemble rehearses, and therefore the teacher hears what's going on and can form a conclusion based upon what they heard. He/she can then provide feedback.
How do I help students who aren't great at testing become better?
While this video isn't extremely helpful at answering my question, I feel the speaker helped me articulate my question a bit better. I think that if I talk to the students who are nervous about testing, then I can give them strategies for keeping their mind in the right place.
In order to employ teacher identity and development in my classroom, I need to motivate myself through reading music educator journals and through keeping my mind open and fresh. Having an open mind is one of the most important parts of being a teacher. Gaining perspectives from students, colleagues, and anyone else is a great way to expand your beliefs. However, beliefs should be
One can believe that truth is held within; that truth is different to each person and does not need to be validated by an outside source. Or, one can choose to believe that the truth is "out there." Truth can be validated and everyone's truths will then be the same. "We unconsciously filter virtually everything we believe through a belief system."
(Thompson, Considering Beliefs in Learning to Teach Music, p. 32)
Why is music important for music's sake?
I touched on this in my philosophy statement, but I feel this is a question that's extremely difficult to answer and explain to someone who doesn't live the musical life. Music is important for so many ineffable reasons - how do I communicate that in an effective manner?
I am a dedicated choir student, and have been for six years. Being in Freshman Vocal Studio and having voice lessons since sophomore year of high school, I feel I am able to diagnose issues in the voice very easily. In order to solidify my knowledge, I plan to continue my endeavor as a member of the chorus and private instruction. This is the most effective way to teach; through continued learning.
Choral teaching presents many challenges in music education, but it is also an easy way for students to join a musical ensemble.
How do I pick the appropriate pieces for a choral ensemble?
If it were up to me, I'd pick Eric Whitacre all the time. But I don't think that's appropriate for a sixth grade chorus...how do I decide what the students can and can't handle?
This is a great website for ordering sheet music. Although I don't think it's based upon level, it does have music for men's choir, women's choir, SATB, and unison or two-part. Unison or two part could definitely be used for middle school chorus.
Elementary school music didn't used to excite me, but after Dr. Jacobi's guest lecture in MU286, I feel elementary school music may be something I want to teach in my future. I think my favorite approach to elementary methods is Kodaly's. Talent is a wonderful thing, but hard work is more wonderful, and I want students to understand that. I want everyone to have the same opportunities in my classroom. All three approaches to music are important, and I will certainly use all three at the same time. But in my classroom, I think I'd like Kodaly's to be most prominent.
Teaching elementary school music is perhaps the first time a student may experience music. It is important to make that experience enjoyable and educational in order to assure the students stick with music.
How can I assess students in elementary school music? Most students at that age aren't comfortable with singing in front of others.
I'm not entirely sure, but in this video, I think the educator is assessing the students in groups.
What are some ways that technology could be potentially harmful in music education?
In my future classroom, I would definitely like to have a smartboard. I think smartboards are a wonderful invention and could be so helpful in teaching music. A smartboard connects to a computer which has internet access. Through this, I could pull up Youtube videos or Spotify in order to allow the students to listen to a particular piece. It would also be good for learning in traditional ways, as I could simply write on the board.
Although technology is extremely important to the advancement of education, it should merely be a tool, and shouldn't be relied upon. After all, music and education should be the focus of music education.
This website isn't specific to music education, but I feel it does contribute to answering my question.
I definitely plan on catering to every students needs in my future classroom, because I feel that's the only way to be an effective educator. I will do whatever I can to meet the needs of every student.
Learning exceptionalities should not stop students from receiving an effective education.
Are students with certain learning exceptionalities more likely to be in a musical ensemble than a core class?
I feel I have a very strong philosophy for a freshman in college. However, I still have so much room for growth and development that in the grand scheme of things, it's not very solid. Having a solid teaching philosophy is something that I believe takes years to think about. I still have a lot of work to do, but for now, I think applying my philosophical stance will be effective in observing my teachers.
A teachers philosophy should be stable, and should be built on a strong belief system. With that in mind, it is also crucial that a teacher views a philosophy as a living organism, in that it is always growing and changing.
Philosophy is a hard topic for me to wrap my head around, so questions come naturally. My biggest question is how do I keep my beliefs strong, while also keeping my beliefs open to change?
I actually think I just answered this question on my own. Having an open mind and fundamental beliefs go hand in hand. I practice open mindedness daily. Why should music education be any different?
Andria Hall's Philosophy Statement:
Being an Effective Teacher
Observing and Analyzing Teacher Behavior
Teacher Identity and Development
Making the Connection!
How does each topic connect to one another? Follow the lines!