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Chemistry in Sports

I explain the chemistry in different sports. www.lcscience.comuv.com for more info !!!
by

Luke Collister

on 6 October 2012

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Transcript of Chemistry in Sports

Formula 1 Tennis Introduction Many people look at sports from the physics aspect, like the forces; also they look at the biology aspect, like the impact on the body, but almost NO ONE looks at the chemistry aspect of sports. About Me My name is Luke Collister. I am 13 years old and I go to Aloha College, Spain. I saw past presentations and I decided to make one myself. I hope you like it !!! By Luke Collister Golf Golf Intro Energy Drinks Credits About Me Formula 1

1. Supersoft (Red Markings)
2. Soft (Yellow Markings)
3. Medium (White Markings)
4. Hard (Silver/Grey Markings)
Then, the wet tyres:
5. Intermediate (Blue Markings)
6. Wet (Orange Markings) There are two main factors that affect how the tyres perform:
Temperature and Stiffness. If the tyres are out of the optimal temperature range, the driver will lose grip, resulting in sliding. What happens if the tyres go out of the Optimal Temperature Range ? How are they made ? The tyres are made of uncured rubber, Polymers, reinforcing fillers, several plasticizers (oils, etc…), vulcanization chemicals and vulcanization activators. They have 8 layers of different materials.

1. They are mixed in "Banbury Mixers".
2. Finally, they are put in a mould at around 160 degrees for anywhere between 20-45 minutes. Vulcanizers are added to make the tyre hard.

The 8 layers of the tyre HAVE to reach the optimal vulcanization level at the same time. A One Piece ball A Two Piece ball A Three Piece ball
1. One Piece (Soft Feel)
One Piece golf balls are made of:

1st Layer: Surlyn
The One Piece golf ball is used by driving ranges, because it is cheap and durable. 2. Two Piece (Hard Feel)
Two Piece golf balls are made of:

1st Layer: Hard Plastic
2nd Layer: Surlyn
The Two Piece ball is used by most ordinary golfers. It gives you the most distance, but not as much feel as other golf balls. In Golf, there are different types of golf balls:
(Below, the 1st layer is the core, the 2nd is the next layer out.) 3. Three Piece (Soft Feel)
Three-piece golf balls are made of:

1st Layer: Solid Rubber
2nd Layer: Protective layer of liquid rubber
3rd Layer: Surlyn or Balata
The Three Piece Ball is used by top players because of the feel and control, although it gives less distance. 4. Four Piece (Soft Feel)
Four piece golf balls are made of:

1st Layer: Solid Rubber
2nd Layer: Surlyn
3rd Layer: Surlyn
4th Layer: Urethane
The Four Piece ball is designed to give maximum feel and control, as well as maximum distance. Q. Why does the Four Piece Ball provide the same as a Three Piece Ball (Feel and Control) AND more distance ?
A. This is because the shells of the balls are different. The Urethane is more elastic, but still strong. This means that the elastic part absorbs energy on impact, but because it is strong, it still goes a long way. Credits Thanks to: I am going to talk about tyres. The tyres are made by Pirelli. In Formula 1 there are 6 different compounds of tyres. They are in order of speed, fastest first: Here, I am drivingthe MONTREAL circuit with 2 different compounds (SUPERSOFT and SOFT), to show the time difference. Here, I am driving the CATALUNYA circuit with 2 different compounds (SOFT and HARD), to show the difference. These laps will NOT be carbon copies, therefore it is not a fair test.I will try my best to make it fair !!!
1. The racing line is different.
2. The gears/speeds are different.
3. It is a game, and it is NOT the same as real life.

To try to make it more realistic, I will drive the laps in second gear, which takes out (2). Also, because I am going a lot slower, I will be able to better copy the racing line (1). An Experiment I am going to do an experiment. I will drive the same circuit with different tyres. This is to show you the different times.
Now, I bet you're thinking, "OMG, he's driving when he's only 13 !!!"
Well, I am going to drive, but on the FORMULA 1 2011 GAME, on my XBOX 360. Tennis On Court 1 we have: Modern Racquets .V. Wooden Racquets.
On Court 2 we have: Animal Gut Strings .V. Synthetic strings
On my website we have: HOW TO MAKE A TENNIS BALL !!! Glossary
Surlyn:
Compound:
REMEMBER:
CHEMISTRY IS NOT JUST A BORING SUBJECT WITH TEXTBOOKS !!! In my presentation I am going to explain what a huge part chemistry plays in sports.
In this project I will explain the chemistry of different sports, such as:
Formula 1,
Tennis,
Golf.

And also I will explain the chemistry in energy drinks.
Please visit my website (www.lcscience.comuv.com) for more cool stuff !!!

ENJOY !!!!! The Racquets Modern Racquets are made out of man-made materials like:
1. Graphite
2. Fibreglass Interesting fact: Tennis legend Bjorn Borg, won 11 Grand Slam titles in the 70´s and 80´s using a wooden racquet. TENNIS: Energy Drinks Stiffness
If we use the Hard compound as a reference, the Medium compound is 6% softer, the Soft compound is 18% softer and the Supersoft compound is 27% softer.
Meaning that because the tyres are softer, they bounce more, therefore there would not be as much friction. Temperature
All the tyres have an optimal temperature window. So if the race surface temperature is between:

18 degrees - 38 degrees (low temperatures), Supersoft and Medium tyres will be used.

30 degrees - 50 degrees (high temperatures), Soft and Hard tyres will be used. Glossary I am going to talk about energy drinks. The brand that kindly provided information is What is in energy drinks ? Why are they good for sports people ? Are they good for our health ? Lucozade Energy products are made using:
1. Glucose Syrups or
2. Glucose Fructose Syrups
(Which are carbohydrates made from maize and wheat starch.) Because Surlyn is cheap and durable. Surlyn Why Use ... Hard Plastic Liquid Rubber Balata Urethane The History of Lucozade ENERGY DRINKS: Carbohydrates made from maize and wheat startch. Carbohydrates made from maize and wheat startch but from fruit as well. A compound in Formula 1 is a type of tyre (E.g. Supersoft) Lucozade was first invented in 1927 as a drink to recover from illness. It´s name was Glucozade.
In 1954, people said that Glucozade actually just replaced energy and so, in 1980, it was re-marketed as an energy drink under the name of Lucozade.

Over the years, Lucozade has released different products like:
1. Original Lucozade in the 1980´s.
2. Lucozade Sport, their first Isotonic drink, in the 1990´s. This became the main drink for
organisations like: FA Premier League, British Athletics Federation and Rugby Union (England).
3. Lucozade Sport Lite, a low calorie version of 2, in the late 1990´s.
4. Lucozade Alert, in the 2000´s. It is good for sports people because it provides instant energy. If other carbohydrates were used, it would take longer to break down, therefore not providing instant energy. The main advantage of using glucose syrup instead of other carbohydrates is: 
It is easier to break down because it is a single molecule, whereas other carbohydrates are made up of many molecules. Glucose Syrup will get to the blood faster, giving faster energy. Why Glucose Syrup ? An Isotonic drink contains the same concentration of salts and others substances as the blood. Why is an Isotonic drink good ? Lucozade Sport is an Istonic drink. It replaces body-fluid and stabilizes the body. This is because the liquid is the same concentration as the body´s salt. A cheap and durable hard plastic. Yes, if we are doing exercise. But if we drink them and don't exercise, the carbohydrates count as fat if they aren't burnt off. WAIT A MINUTE !!!!!!! Court 1 Court 2 Modern Racquets Wooden Racquets This is because they are:
1. Lightweight
2. Easier to hit
3. More accurate Old Racquets were made out of wood. This was because:
1. Wood is strong.
2. It was cheap to get. Wooden Racquets do hit the ball as far as modern racquets, but modern racquets are the better choice. They do everything a Wooden Racquet does and more. WINNER: MODERN RACQUETS .V. Animal Gut Strings Balata: Urethane:
GOLF: Vulcanizers:
FORMULA 1: For the Bill Bryson Competition 2012 .V. Synthetic Strings Synthetic: Fibreglass: Graphite: Chemistry in Sports WINNER: ANIMAL GUT STRINGS Because it gives you good distance as well as good spin and control. Animal Gut Strings are used because when the ball is hit, the strings do not tighten up. They also have the most energy return because of the softness of animal gut. Synthetic Strings are used because they are cheap to manufacture and because they are soft and easy to bend. The only problems are that animal gut is expensive and not very durable. The tighter the strings, the more control and spin you have, but less ditsnace.
The looser the strings, the less control and spin you have, but more distance. WAIT A MINUTE !!! Q. If the strings are looser, shouldn´t the strings absorb more of the energy at impact ?
A. No, because if the strings are looser, the ball gets thrown back more by the strings, like a slingshot. Glucose Syrups: Glucose Frutcose Syrups: Isotonic: A soft sap from trees, like rubber. It is not very durable. An extra-soft synthetic material. A fabric made from glass fibres, which are small pieces of glass. Something made by humans; not produced naturally. A soft black form of Carbon (C). A substance that is used to increase the elasticity and strength in rubber. 1. Mr. Davies, my science teacher, for putting so much time and effort into helping me.
2. My Dad, David Collister, for helping me with the golf section.
3. Pirelli, for supplying such helpful information on the tyres. 4. Samuel Morelius, for helping me with the Tennis section.
5. Wilson, for supplying such helpful information on tennis balls.
6. Lucozade, for supplying such helpful information on the Energy Drinks. 7. My Mum, Rachel Collister, for correcting my rubbish spelling ;) The End Thanks for watching !!!

Remember, go to www.lcscience.comuv.com for more cool stuff !!! They do not have properties as good as Animal Gut. Because Hard Plastic is durable and, believe it or not, is hard, so it doesn´t absorb much energy, therefore hitting the ball further. Because Liquid Rubber is soft, it absorbs a lot of the impact. Because Balata is very soft making it perfect for putting spin on the ball. Because Urethane is a very soft synthetic material making it perfect for putting spin on the ball and for producing a lot of distance. 5. Five Piece (Soft Feel)
Five piece golf balls are made of:

1st Layer: Solid Rubber
2nd Layer: UNSURE (A low-compressed material)
3rd Layer: UNSURE (A semi-firm material)
4th Layer: UNSURE (A soft material)
5th Layer: Urethane
Now, thanks to TaylorMade, we have a lot of information on the Five Piece Ball.
So, why do golf ball companies make balls with so many layers ?
Well, here is the answer.

The 1st Layer is designed to give distance for the driver due to the hardness of the material.
The 2nd Layer is designed to give good launch for the long irons due to soft feel of the material.
The 3rd Layer is designed to give good control fot the middle irons due to the soft but firm material.
The 4th Layer is designed to give good spin with short irons/wedges due to the soft material.
The 5th Layer is designed to give a soft feel for the putter and wedges due to the softness of Urethane. Here, I am driving the MONZA circuit with 2 different compounds (SOFT and MEDIUM), to show the difference. A Four Piece ball A Five Piece ball 8. The guys in the TaylorMade Tour Truck, especially Paul McDonnell. The TP5 balls are amazing, and just generally thanks for all the help. 9. George Hinchliffe for helping me film the F1 videos.
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