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Important events in France, Europe and the US (1750-1850)


Mikaela Nixon

on 16 October 2013

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Transcript of Important events in France, Europe and the US (1750-1850)

Important Events in France, Europe and the United States between 1750 and 1850 (TAKE TWO)
Pearl Harbour
Battle of midway
June, 1942
December 7th, 1941
Seven Years War
February 10, 1763
The last major conflict before the French Revolution to involve all the great powers of Europe (
Generally, France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Russia were aligned on one side against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain on the other.
The war was fought due to the attempts from the Austrians to win back the rich province of Silesia, which had been taken from them by Frederick II the Great of Prussia during the war of the Austrian Succession (1740-48).
Treaty of Versailles
May 15, 1768
In order to pay it’s debts and no longer being able to suppress struggle for independence, the Republic of Genoa ceded Corsica to France. Corsica has remained French ever since.
Louis XV Dies
May 10, 1774
Died at the age of 64, in the bedchamber of his inner apartment from smallpox.
His 59-year old reign ended, the longest after Louis XIV.
After he passed, Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette knelt down, embracing one another and murmured: “My God, protect us, we are so young to reign!”
Louis XV
Treaty of Versailles
Seven Years War
February 1778
France recognizes the American colonies as independent from the UK, making its involvement in the American War of Independence official.
Storming the Bastille
July 14, 1789
The day is seen by many as the symbol of the French revolution and a public holiday in memory of the revolution.
The Bastille was a huge structure which used to be a castle with 8 towers, in the East of Paris in the working class district of St. Antoine.
A guard by the name of Marquis de Launay stood at the door and let the mob into the courtyard, gun shots were fired, and in a period of 4 hours, many of the prison defenders changed sides and took the revolutionaries’ side.
When the fighting ended and de Launay and his men were taken to Town Hall and murdered and their heads were put up on posts and paraded around the city.
Storming the Bastille
Louis XVI Dies
January 21, 1793
Louis XVI is executed by guillotine.
After the storming of the Bastille, Louis attempted to escape in 1791 but was captured and returned to Paris. In 1792, the newly elected National Convention declared France a republic and brought Louis to trial for crimes against the people.
Marie Antoinette Dies
October 16, 1793
The first victim of the Reign of Terror, Marie Antoinette was hated for her Austrian blood and her expensive tastes.
She was nicknamed Madame Deficit and blamed for the country’s financial problems.
She was convicted of treason and sentenced to be guillotined.
Until the very end, she maintained her dignity, because on the scaffold she accidentally stepped on the executioner’s foot, and her last words were, “Monsieur, I ask your pardon. I did not do it on purpose.”
Marie Antoinette
Reign of Terror
June 7, 1793
Maximilien Robespierre was the mastermind of the Reign of Terror.
He was the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, the executive committee of the National Convention, and the most powerful man in France.
His well known policy was “The end justifies the means”.
After killing almost 30,000 people, Robespierre was arrested and sent to the guillotine himself, and was the last victim of the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
The Quasi-War
July 7, 1798
The US Congress rescinded treaties with France, a moment considered as the semi-official beginning of the Quasi-War which was an undeclared war, mostly fought at sea between the US and the French Republic. Also known as the Pirate Wars, or the Half-War.
The Quasi-War
French Directory
November 8, 1799
Napoleon worked with Emmanuel Sieyes to overthrow the French Directory, succeeding on November 9, 1799.
He became commander of the Paris garrison and first consul of the new government, the French Consulate.
The powerful position allowed him to centralize government and codify the civil law in the Napoleonic Code.
Louisiana Purchase
May 2, 1803
The Louisiana Purchase was a land deal between France and the US, where the US acquired almost 827,000 square miles of land for $15 million dollars.
President Jefferson wrote a letter to Pierre Samuel du Pont due to his reports that France might have given the territory to Spain.
Within a week of his letter, Jefferrson wrote US Minister to France Robert Livingston "Nothing since the revolutionary war has produced more uneasy sensations through the body of the nation.
Louisiana Purchase
Overthrowing the French Directory
Battle of Vertieres
November 18, 1803
At the French naval base in the Caribbean, revolutionary events transformed the area so it was covered in troops, forts, and encampments full of artillery.
Dessalines, whom was an English enemy of Rochambeau, ordered unit after unit into the encampments, until late that night, Rochambeau proposed an armistice, originally declined, but was later fulfilled with the surrendering to the English.
General Rochambeau, who was the successor of General Leclerc - whom died of yellow fever in November 1802, proved to be a competent military man and a sadistic maniac.

Mass hangings and drownings, victims burned at the stake, ambushes and massacres.
General Rochambeau
Dessalines proclaimed the Independence of Saint-Dominique and have the new state the name it had been given by Arawak inhabitants of the island: Haiti. Nov. 18, is now celebrated as Armed Forces Day in Haiti.
The Haitian Revolution
January 1, 1804
Dessalines declared the independence of Haiti!
Napoleon Marries
May 9, 1804
Napoleon married Josephine in the mayor's office

Hours before his coronation ceremony, Josephine told Pope Pius VII that their marriage had been a civil ceremony and wasn’t recognized by the Catholic church, meaning should couldn't be crowned as Napoleon’s wife.
So a second, secret marriage ceremony was performed at midnight before the ceremony, enabling her to be crowned his wife, and empress the next day.
HOWEVER, Napoleon was two hours late, the mayor left so the minor official performed the ceremony, and they both lied about their age on the certificate.

Since she was older than he, she said she was younger, and he said he was older.

He gave her a gold medallion with the words “To Destiny” inscribed in them.
Napoleon Becomes Emperor
May 18, 1804
Napoleon created around himself, what can only be described as a royal court; for music, Napoleon commissioned Giovanni Paisiello - a composer he deeply admired and whom he brought from Italy to Paris to direct the Consular Chapel.
To paint the event, he commissioned the artist Jacques-Louis David who was doing the official painting of the event, and was then ordered to paint Napoleon’s mother into it, even though she didn’t attend because of her anger towards Josephine.

The dress of Napoleon and Josephine was white silk extravagantly embroidered in gold. Napoleon’s golden crown of laurel leaves cost 8,000 Francs. His red velvet embroidered robe cost 15,000 Francs, and was lined with 15,000 Francs worth of ermine - which is the fur from a weasel. Josephine’s crown, diadem and girdle cost 15,000 Francs. Her robe was lined with 10,300 Francs worth of ermine and cost 16,000 Francs for the velvet and embroidery in gold.
Peninsular War
May 2, 1808
The Spanish people rose up against the French army in Madrid. By nightfall, 150 French were dead. They retaliated killing thousands of Spaniards, torturing and mutilating their prisoners. This went on for 5 more years, until Napoleon was defeated by the Sixth Coalition in 1814.
Battle of Waterloo
June 18, 1815
The French army of 72,000 troops, controlled by Napoleon, was defeated by the armies of the Seventh Coalition, comprising an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blucher with a combined number of 113,000 troops. This ends the First French Empire and the Napoleonic Wars and marks the start of a century of peace throughout Europe.
Hundred Days: Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon Exiled to St. Helena
Napoleon renounced his throne in April 1814, and was exiled to Elba in the Mediterranean. Within 11 months, he was back on the European continent. So they exiled him again to the island of St. Helena, a barren, wind-swept rock located in the S. Atlantic Ocean.
Second Restoration
July 7, 1815
The Bourbon Restoration (The Second Restoration) is when Napoleon I
abdicated and the Bourbon monarchs were restored to the throne. The First Restoration was when Napoleon fell from power and Louis XVIII became king. Louis’ reign was interrupted by Napoleon’s return, and when he was forced to abdicate again, that led to the Second Restoration
King Louis XVIII
July Revolution
July 1830
July Revolution or French Revolution of 1830: the conservative House of Bourbon is overthrown and replaced by the more liberal Orleans Monarchy with Louis-Philippe becoming King of France.
February Revolution
February 1848
Working-class members were angry at the government's failure to relieve the depression of 1846-47.

The conservative minister that was the focus of resentment, was Francois Guizot, and the unpopular monarch was King Louis-Philippe.

The angry Parisians gathered outside of the banqueting place, and started street fights, causing government troops to open fire, while others laid down their arms and joined the rebels.

The next day King Louis-Philippe abdicated and fled to England.

A provisional government, the Committee of Public Safety, guided by Alhonse de Lamartine, was established and took over.
Louis Napoleon
December 20, 1848
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte starts his term as the first president of the French Republic
Black Plague
Spread by the bite of infected fleas living on rodents such as rats. Causes inflammation and possible suppuration of the lymph nodes which is black, giving the disease the name of Black Death. Causes pneumonia and is then spread by coughing.

Shows up in
forms: bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic.
Symptoms of
fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, swollen lymph glads and seizures
Main characteristic of the
plague is an infection of the blood.
Main characteristic of the
plague is an infection of the lungs, and some symptoms include cough, bloody sputum and difficulty breathing.
150 years after Jamestown was founded. United states was still in infancy, but expanding. Oppression from British portends Revolutionary war.
French and Indian War
New France and British colonies fighting over territory, each backed by parent country.
French and Indian War
Treaty of Paris
Ended the French and Indian War, France ceded most North American territory
Treaty of Paris
(The European counterpart to the French and Indian War)
Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre
British soldiers harassed by crowd, subsequently fired into said crowd. 5 injured and 6 killed.
Tea Act
Boston Tea Party
Made it so the colonies could only buy tea from the British East India Company.
Tea Act
In response to the Tea Act, colonists snuck on to British trade ships and threw the tea they were forced to buy into the harbor.
Intolerable Acts
Series of acts in response to the Boston Tea Party. Harshest acts imposed upon colonists. Spurred the beginning of the revolutionary war.
Intolerable Acts
First Continental Congress
Secret meeting consisting of 56 members to protect Liberty and plan the nation’s future. They met in secret because they did not want the british to know they were organizing
First Continental Congress
Battles of Lexington
and Concord

Valley Forge
First battles of the Revolutionary war, Colonial victory.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Colonial soldiers were trained by Prussian drill sergeant Baron von Steuben during a harsh winter
Valley Forge
Siege of Yorktown
American siege of British held Yorktown, that led to an American victory. This was the last major battle of the Revolutionary war.
Siege of Yorktown
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. Under the terms Britain recognized the United States of America as an independent nation and would remove all troops
Treaty of Paris
(Take Two!)
First Presidential Election
First Presidential Election
George Washington ran essentially unopposed and served for two consecutive terms with vice president John Adams.
Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
The first 10 Amendments of the US constitution that were made in a compromise and allowed it to pass.
XYZ Affair
XYZ Affair
Tensions arose when the United States refused to give aid to France during the French Revolution. This led to an undeclared war between the two countries.
Lewis & Clark
Lewis & Clark
Sent out to explore the newly acquired land from the Louisiana Purchase. At one point they hired a Native American guide named Sacajawea.
War of 1812
War between America and Britain after the latter tried to restrict trade and imprisoned American sailors. Despite many costly defeats in battle, the war resulted in an American victory
War of 1812
Panic of 1819
Economical depression caused by the forceful contraction after the expansionary money policy during the war of 1812
Panic of 1819
Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise
A compromise to ease tensions in a nation beginning to divide over slavery.
Monroe Doctrine
Established the US policy of Isolationism, but also stated that any act of aggression towards the US would not be tolerated
Monroe Doctrine
Texas Revolution
The Alamo
Settlers in Texas were oppressed by the Mexican government and attempted to overthrow it
Texas Revolution
Famous battle of the Texas Revolution, US defeat.
The Alamo
Texas Annexation
Texas Annexation
By popular vote, Texas was annexed as a part of the United States.
Gold Rush
Large influx of population to California after the discovery of gold. Arguably the most important event in California history.
Gold Rush
Boston Tea Party
Industrial Revolution
May 13, 1760
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Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, n.d. Web. 26 Feb 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/seven-years-war>
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Important Events in France, US, and Europe between 1750 & 1850


The industrial revolution was a transition to new manufacturing processes that began at this time.
This revolutionized and improved efficiency production methods changed from hand production to machines.
This was an important time in Europe because almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way.
This began in Britain, however, within few decades spread to Western Europe and the United States.
Industrial Revolution
Although this did not actually happen in Europe, European settlers were responsible for devastating health effects in other parts of the world.
This disease swept New England American Indian populations in the late 1700s, and continued to spread throughout the next century until vaccine was developed.
Rousseau Published Contract
Rousseau Published Contract
In 1762, philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, one of the most influential Enlightenment writers published the social contract. The work opens with revolutionary statement “Man was born free, but he is everywhere in chains,” Expressing his belief in freedom of the human spirit, and a principle underlying every revolutionary movement of age. The social contract outlined political order, defining the government as a contract between the people and their leaders. Rousseau believed that humans gave up freedoms in order to be governed by others because they more fully enjoyed rights, happiness, and property in a state
Britain Claims Australia
James Cook on his first of three expeditions of the Pacific, landed at the southeast coast of Australia. Though He was hardly one of the first Europeans to explore the continent, he claimed it for Britain, naming it New South Wales. Cook’s first expedition also included charting New Zealand and part of Australia. Besides Cook Claiming Australia for Britain, one of his main goals and accomplishments was to find the great southern continent that many believed must exist.
Britain Claims Australia
First Balloon Flight
Invented by Joseph and Jacques, and his main purpose was for the flight to cover five and a half miles and lasted twenty five minutes. Though Joseph and Jacques were the first to invent the hot air balloon, The Montgolfier brother were the first to build and make a flight in it. The brother believed that the balloon worked because a unique lighter- than- air gas was formed when the huge piece of cloth was filled with heated air. This invention was the first entertainment event that occurred during the 1783, and is currently used in today’s time period.
First Balloon Flight
Jenner Vaccinates for Pox
English physician Edward Jenner successfully administered a vaccination against smallpox, which lead him to be known as father of immunology. Jenner’s curiosities lead him to experiment milkmaid and develop different types of methods to cure smallpox. Jenner’s method improved over time as he experimented with animals and people, and improved his work several times. Once the vaccination was accepted by the masses and administered, smallpox death rates rapidly declined
Jenner Vaccinates for Pox
Fulton Invents Submarine
Fulton’s creation failed various times; he tried his creation with the French which was unsuccessful, leading him to try his creation with the opposite enemy the British and failed the second time. Due to defective mines, Fulton was defeated, but certain that the submarine would eventually re emerge as an effective warfare machine.
Robert Fulton known as the “Genius” first tested his creation before making conclusions. He created the first submarine known as the Nautilus, which was used by the French in war against the British.
Fulton Invents Submarine
Volta Displays Battery
Italian Physicist Alessandro Volta was known to demonstrate the action of the first electric battery. Due to his demonstration many other beneficial inventions were developed, and used as in today’s world.
Volta Displays Battery
Slave Trade Abolished
Slave Trade Abolished
Under the Slave Trade Act, Great Britain’s Parliament abolished the slave trade in the British Empire in 1807. By the mid-1790s boycott was organized by the Caribbean slaves, which briefly sent a message that people were willing to take a stand on the issue. Britain’s Parliament eventually declined, making it illegal for any of the British colonies to conduct in the trade of slaves.
Macadam Builds Roads
Scottish engineer John Loudon Macadam became a general of the Bristol roads and began new techniques of road building in Britain that represented a complete shift from earlier methods and is still used today. His durable paving method, known as macadamization, allowed for construction of lasting roads linking cities to quickly spread to the rest of the world.
Macadam Builds Roads
Greeks Declare War
The Ottomans had ruled Greece for several centuries, but with the strong momentum of the French Revolution, Greeks sought out their own independence. Leadership problems were confronted when Greek rebelled against the Ottoman. But other European nations backed the idea of Greece’s independence, and Britain, France, and Russia used their naval might to destroy Egypt’s fleet.
Greeks Declare War
French Revolt Against King
French Revolt Against the King
The July Revolution was a revolt against King Charles the X of France. Workers, including middle-class professionals, revolted, accusing King Charles of opposing the liberals, who had just won the majority in the recent legislative elections. Three days of uncontrolled fighting lead King Charles to flee.
Braille Writes for Blind
Braille Writes for Blind
In 1834 Louis Braille perfected a code of raised dots on paper, making it possible for the blind to be able to read and write. Braille became blind at young ages, which lead him to attend to a school in pairs for the blind. Louis created a system that is used by arranging sixty three different patterns which represents letters, numbers, and punctuation. This type of system has adopted around the world and is credited as bringing literacy to the blind.
Communist Manifesto
Communist Manifesto
German Philosopher Karl Marx and German Economist Friedrich Engels wrote Communist Manifesto known as a pamphlet which outlined their basic ideas on communism and became one of the most widely read documents over the next century, inspiring the revolutionary communist movement.
Works Cited

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