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Ethanol science fair project VAP MMM MJC
Transcript of Ethanol science fair project VAP MMM MJC
as a Vehicle Fuel
Ethanol Fuel Mixtures
In developed countries, most gasoline now contains ethanol (less than 10%)
Max blend in Canada (and in most other countries) is E85
Concentrations greater than E15 can cause damage to non-FFVs (Flexible-Fuel Vehicles)
In Brazil, E100 (hydrous ethanol) is available, minimum is E25
Cost of Using Ethanol
Ethanol is sold cheaper per-gallon than gasoline
E100 has 34% less energy by volume compared to gasoline, thus ~50% more ethanol must be used than gasoline to receive same amount of energy
Cost of Producing
Environmental Effects of Ethanol
Greenhouse gas emissions is reduced.
It contains 35% oxygen, thereby allowing for a more complete fuel combustion
Ethanol reduces the amount of air pollution emitted and oil is used
Environmental Effects- Continued
A problem that rises with the mass production of ethanol is deforestation
Less photosynthesis will take place
Only 2.8% of the earth’s water is qualified to be fresh water.
A litre of gasoline that is produced consumes more than 5.2 litres of water
Ethanol consumes about 10 to 17 litres of water to produce the equivalent of one litre of gasoline, which is double the amount that gasoline consumes.
Social Impacts of Ethanol Fuel
Ethanol is made by fermenting sugars found in plants
40% of the corn produced in the US is diverted towards ethanol production
The problem rises when ethanol production increases
The food vs fuel debate is an ongoing argument about the adverse effects of producing ethanol
Production of Ethanol also causes a change in food prices
Brazil produces ethanol from sugar cane
US ethanol is produced from corn
Ethanol does have its fair share of advantages and disadvantages
It succeeds in reducing CO2 emissions, and is easily producible
Disadvantages are: Deforestation, higher cost, and loss of land and water
History of Ethanol Fuel
Idea of using ethanol as a fuel has been around since the 1900s
(Ethanol Fuel History)
"Ethanol Fuel History." Fuel-Testers. Web. 20 Nov. 2014. <http://www.fuel-testers.com/ethanol_fuel_history.html>.
Brazil was the first country to have mandatory ethanol blends, due to the 1970's oil crisis (Brazil's Ethanol Program)
"Brazil's Ethanol Program - An Insider's View - Energy Tribune." Energy Tribune RSS. Web. 20 Nov. 2014. <http://www.energytribune.com/834/brazils-ethanol-program-an-insiders-view#sthash.LdRiEND3.dpbs>.
Large use in the U.S. began after the banning of MTBE
Use of Ethanol
Since 2000, worldwide consumption of ethanol fuel has increased almost fivefold (World Fuel Ethanol Consumption)
"World Fuel Ethanol Consumption by Year." World Ethanol Fuel Consumption by Year (Thousand Barrels per Day). Web. 20 Nov. 2014. <http://www.indexmundi.com/energy.aspx?product=ethanol&graph=consumption.>.
"Consumptive Water Use in the Production of Ethanonl and Petroleum Gasoline. " Washington, D.C: United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2009. Web.
"How Do Trees Turn Carbon Dioxide into Oxygen?" EHow. Demand Media, 05 Aug. 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.
From 2001-2013, Ethanol Fuel use in the U.S. has increased from 1.7 billion gallons to 13.2 billion gallons (Ethanol)
"Ethanol." Ethanol. Web. 20 Nov. 2014. <http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/ethanol.shtml>.
Ethanol is more corrosive than regular gasoline (Brinkman, N.)
Brinkman, N., Halsall, R., Jorgensen, S., and Kirwan, J., "The Development of Improved Fuel Specifications for Methanol (M85) and Ethanol (Ed85)," SAE Technical Paper 940764, 1994, doi:10.4271/940764
Modified fuel tanks, pumps, lines, and filters, and gaskets are needed for older vehicles
Easier to contaminate, and holds more water
Ethanol is 34% less energy dense compared to gasoline (Ethanol Benefits and Considerations)
"Ethanol Benefits and Considerations." Alternative Fuels Data Center:. October 9, 2014. Accessed November 6, 2014. http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_benefits.html.
Ethanol has a higher octane rating than gasoline
The cars engine must be tuned to use the different fuel
The amount of fuel injected must be increased, as well as the airflow
The engine could also be tuned to take advantage of the higher octane rating and increase performance
This would increase thermal efficiency and allow the engine to produce much more power and torque
"Ethanol." Natural Resources Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
"Environmental, Economic, and Energetic Costs and Benefits of Biodiesel and Ethanol Biofuels." Environmental, Economic, and Energetic Costs and Benefits of Biodiesel and Ethanol Biofuels. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
"Despite Evidence, Food Vs. Fuel Fight Continues." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
"The Transportation Nexus." KnowledgeWharton The Transportation Nexus Ethanol Is a Food vs Fuel Issue Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
Lederer, Edith M. "Production of Biofuels 'is a Crime'" The Independent. Independent Digital News and Media, n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
"UN Rapporteur Calls for Biofuel Moratorium - SWI Swissinfo.ch." SWI Swissinfo.ch. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
Tessler, Leandro R. "Social Impact of Biofuel Production: The Case of Brazilian Ethanol." (n.d.): n. pag. Social Impact of Biofuel Production. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
Higher octane fuels reduce pre-detonation
Engines can have higher compression ratios, support forced induction (turbo & superchargers), and have advanced ignition timing
" Bartlett, Kenneth G. "Social Impact of the Radio." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 250.Communication and Social Action (1947): 89-97. Web.
"Policy Positions: Ethanol’s Positive Impact on the Environment & Air Quality." RFA: Renewable Fuels Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2014.
"Argonne GREET Publication : Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline (abstract)." Argonne GREET Publication : Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline (abstract). N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2014.
"Is It Time to End Ethanol Vehicle Fuel Mandates?" Watts Up With That. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2014.
Valentina Arango P
Maria José Cuenca
Mariana Munera M
"How Ethanol Is Made." RFA: Renewable Fuels Association. Web. 21 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/how-ethanol-is-made>.
Background from: http://www.emphasisnet.gr/media/ e-fuel_antlia.jpg