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Part II of Overview of Ancient Greece

LSA World History - Unit III Introduction: Sequential History of Ancient Greece

Aaron Pratt

on 27 January 2015

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Transcript of Part II of Overview of Ancient Greece

O CE 6000 BCE 7000 BCE 5000 BCE 2000 BCE 4000 BCE 1000 BCE 3000 BCE 1000 CE Ancient Mesopotamians (3200-600 BCE) Ancient Egyptians (3100-500 BCE) Ancient Hebrews (1200-600BCE) Ancient Greece (750-300BCE) Roman Republic (509-27 BCE) Bronze Age (3200-1200 BCE) First Use of Metal Seen Copper (4500 BCE) Iron Age
(1300 BCE - 600 CE) Neolithic Era - "New Stone Age" - 8000-3000 BCE Ancient Phoenicians (1200-500 BCE) International Bronze Age
(1600-1100 BCE) Period of Sea/Land Trade across far borders:
Minoans, Mycenaean Greeks, Egyptians, Hittites, etc...
Vast trading network spread cultural ideas
Collapses around 1200-1100 BCE
Fall of Mycenaean, Hittite -- Decline of Egyptian New Kingdom
***Many reasons... hard to know for sure what the key
reason was ---> lots of fighting, rebellion of
peasantry, invasions, etc... Persian Empire (600-300 BCE) Persian History begins... but not a fully united empire yet...
and they are conquered by others a few times... Minoans (2500-1400 BCE) 2550 BCE 1792 BCE - Hammurabi comes to power and creates first law code during his rule

"Code of Hammurabi" First Law Code First Writing Develops Great Pyramid at Giza built Hyksos Rule Much of Egypt
introduce Composite Bow and Chariot Middle Kingdom (2050-1780 BCE) New Kingdom - Phaoroh first used as title of Ruler (1570-1150BCE) Old Kingdom "Pyramid Age" (2680-2160 BCE) First Intermediate Period

Old Kingdom falls into disarry Second Intermediate Period 331 BCE - Alexander the Great conquers Persian Empire 332 BCE - Alexander the Great conquers city of Trye, Palestine and Egypt 861 BCE - Phoenicians found the city of Carthage 700 BCE
First Bireme Ships by Phoenicians
Coinage of silver used widespread in (starts in Lydia) Roms defeat Carthage and level the city after the Punic Wars 150 BCE 1100 BCE - Phoenicians found colonies as far as Spain

Travel outside the Strait of Gilbratar 492-479 BCE - Persian Wars Persian Empire
Greek City-States 550 BCE
Cyrus the Great
Starts the Persian Empire 522 BCE - Darius I Takes power by killing Cyrus's son Expands borders
Improves Transportation
thus increases cultural exchanges 540 BCE - Persians conquer Asia Minor and Babylon

525 BCE - Persians conquer Egypt and Palerstine 510 BCE - Persians Conquer Ionian Greek City-States (On Asia Minor) Merchants/Traders
(Wealthy make up Nobility) Stonehenge --> Built in Bronze Age (1800 BCE approx...)
**Megalith Structure in Southern England** 6 Characteristics of Civilization 1) Food Surpluses
2) Job Specialization
3) Advanced Technologies
4) Large Advanced Cities
5) Complex Centralized Institutions
6) Writing/Record Keeping System 3100 BCE King Menes unites Upper and Lower Kingdoms in Egypt 520's BCE --> Persian Empire conquers Egypt 332 BCE - Egyptians crown Alexander the Great "Pharaoh of Egypt" 586-538 BCE
Babylonian Captivity
**Ended by Persian Emperor Cyrus the Great O CE 1000 BCE 1st Century BCE 1st Century CE 2nd Century BCE 3rd Century BCE 4th Century BCE 5th Century BCE 10th Century BCE 9th Century BCE 8th Century BCE 7th Century BCE 6th Century BCE 6th Century CE 5th Century CE 4th Century CE 3rd Century CE 2nd Century CE 10th
Century CE 9th Century CE 8th Century CE 7th Century CE 17th
Century CE 16th
Century CE 15th
Century CE 14th
Century CE 12th
Century CE 13th
Century CE 11th
Century CE 18th
Century CE 19th
Century CE 20th
Century CE 100 CE 200 CE 300 CE 500 CE 400 CE 800 CE 700 CE 600 CE 900 CE 1000 CE 1100 CE 1200 CE 1300 CE 1500 CE 1400 CE 1800 CE 1700 CE 1600 CE 1900 CE 100 BCE 500 BCE 400 BCE 300 BCE 200 BCE 600 BCE 700 BCE 800 BCE 900 BCE 2000 CE Mycenaean Greeks (1600-1150 BCE) Greek "Dark Ages" (1200-750 BCE) Increased Trade and Economic Growth Increase in Population led to colonization Phoenician Influence
through TRADE Examples
APLHABET --> Greeks add vowels
Economic--> Loans with Interest
Religious--> Introduction of Dionysos (God of wine and Festivals) Archaic Age (750-479 BCE) Golden Age of Athens (479-404 BCE) Hellenistic Age (323-30 BCE) Alexander's Empire split up after his death Hellenistic Society Greek Culture Egyptian and other Middle Eastern Culture Persian Culture What is Hellenistic Culture? The spread of Greek Culture all over the Middle East Combination of Greek and Persian Culture by means of Alexander's conquest Persian Wars 492-479 BCE Iliad and Odyssey are recorded
(Homer) Roman Empire (27BCE-476 CE) Classical Age of Greece
(479-336 BCE) 1st Millennia BCE 1st Millennia CE 2nd Millennia BCE 3rd Millennia BCE 2nd Millennia CE What does this Dark Ages mean???
75% population decline b/w 1150-1050 BCE
De-Urbanization of Mycenean Greeks
**Collapse of Palace System seen throughout
Eastern Mediterranean Region
**Widespread migrations out of Greece mainland
Loss of cultural achievements and....
Written language disappears City of Rome Founded as a Kingdom 8000 BCE Approx. 750 BCE Story of the last phase of the Trojan Wars Story of Odysseus's 10 year voyage home after the Trojan Wars The morals and values of these two epic tales embodied many of the cultural beliefs and values of the Ancient Greeks Over 200 colonies founded b/w 750 -550 BCE Ionian Greeks settled in Western Asia Minor during 800's BCE Black Sea
South Italian Peninsula
Southern France
Eastern Spain
West of Egypt on coastline (Modern Day Libya) Seized territory by force in most cases... Jerks :( Adopted Coinage from the Lydians of Asia Minor by 600 BCE
Standardized the size, weight and minerals used in coins
Standardizes the Value/ Prices of Goods 450 BCE - During Athenian Golden Age --> Athenian Silver was standard coinage for most Greek City-States (accepted widely) 776 BCE 1st Olympic Games were held at Olympus To honor Zeus
Every four years
All wars were to be stopped
Aristocratic Men came from all over Greece to compete
No Women allowed...
Only 1st Place --> recieved Laruel (and praise) Recorded continuously until 217 CE
Last Games held in late 300's CE by Christian Roman Emperor (Theodosius) THE GREEK POLIS Main Components
Acropolis = Upper City - most important buildings and temples (fortified)
Council = Made up of Aristocratic Elders
Temples = Dedicated to various Gods/Goddesses
Agora = Open Area Market Place (informal getherings and discussions... "gossip") Polis was the true identity of Greek Citizens "Citizenship" Need of Polis was more important that need of individuals Male Citizens had the Greatest Rights --> ideally they also had the greatest responsibility too (military service) Non-Citizens --> made up of Free Foreigners that lived in City-States (no political rights) Right to Vote and Hold Political Office Expected to participate in government, pay taxes and serve in military CIVIC DUTY Symbols of Unity in Greek Culture HOPLITES "The Greek Citizen Warrior" Why the need? Defining Fighting Style Importance??? Rise of Tyrants DEF --> one who seizes power by "non-legal" methods
** did not initially imply someone who was a brutal or cruel ruler Drew their power from the HOPLITE citizen warriors Often served needs of community as a whole... not just the needs of Aristocrats (Big #'s = Maintainence of Power) IMPACT ON GREEK POLEIS's DEVELOPMENT promoted overseas trade
built harbors
protected farmers
employed citizens for projects to beautify Polis
large increase in citizen involvement in political process
made alliances with each other to protect themselves... **Only lasted 2 generations on average though --> sons who inherited power usually became unpopular... :( 2 LEADING CITY-STATES IN GREECE SPARTA ATHENS & Sparta Athens Geography Social Hierarchy Values/Idealogy Development of Government Geography Social Hierarchy Values/Idealogy Development of Government Cause -->

Major events -->

Effects --> Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BCE) Cause -->

Effects --> 478 BCE --> Athens creates DELIAN LEAGUE
**Mutual Defense Alliance among City-States
**Named after the island of Delos in the middle of the Aegean sea
**Location of Delian League Treasury was --> everyone met there 300 warships --> 200 of them were Athenian ships
** By 469 BCE - drove out Persians from Aegean Sea Athens gradually turned the Delian League into their own personal empire :(
ex) forced smaller city-states to stay in alliance and pay tribute
ex) By 460 BCE --> Athens moves treasury from Delos to Athens "AGE OF PERICLES" 461-429 BCE --> Marks rule of Athenian Statesmen Pericles 40,000 Male Citizens in Athens during this time
Increase in Athens size/empire led to increase in it's Bureacracy (1500 bureacrats "gov't workers" by the end of this period) Pericles eventually decides to start paying wages to public servants in order to meet demand for Jurors, numerous small political offices, etc... 1st time in Western history that this is done! Pericles made it so only people who had both parents as Athenian Citizens were allowed citizenship
**increased the role of women in Athenian society (still could not vote or participate in politics though) Athens used $ from Delian League to beautify their Polis
**EX) PARTHENON --> temple to Athena (Biggest temple in all of Greece)
**EX) Raised tributes and taxes on other Poleis overtime... Athenian Democracy and Size of Empire reaches its height
** DIRECT DEMOCRACY IN ATHENS What is a "Golden Age"
**Age of high (intellectual/artistic) achievement
**Marks height of power and wealth
**Usually defines the society itself After the Peloponnesian Wars
**Constant fighting and struggles for power/dominance weaken every Polis in Greece :( Rise of Macedonia Phillip II (359-336 BCE)
** Develops Greek Phalanx into his large army
** Conquers Greek City-States
** Father of Alexander the Great ALEXANDER THE GREAT (336-323 BCE) BASIC FACTS --> We will cover him in much more detail...
Took power at Age 20
Spent 11 years conquering PERSIAN EMPIRE
Never lost a single battle
Brought his own personal "historian" to record and glorify himself
Died at Age 32 in the city of Babylon Theatre Philosophy Architecture Science Art/Sculptures ACHIEVEMENT Pelopponesse Peninsula
**In large valley (no Acropolis) Attica (name of land around Athens) Equals Free-Subjects Helots (Spartan Serfs) Citizens Metics (Foreigners) Slaves ** Education --> about mind & body
--> many subjects
** Individual Freedom
** Tolerant towards foriegners/others *Both are most powerful Greek City-States
*Both Believe that women should be held in private life and had to take care of the children
*Both resisted Tyrants
*Military important
*Both had slaves- slaves could work in home, in trade or as farmers SIMILATRITIES ** Discipline, Loyalty, Obedience
** Bravery, Courage, NO FEAR
** Women had more rights in Sparta than Athens
** POINT of LIFE was to create strong SPARTAN soldiers Oligarchy 2 Kings (one at home - one with Hoplites out of Polis)
** Could veto each other - would elect one "Commander and Chief" in times of WAR Council of Elders --> "Gerousia"
** 28 members (over 60 - elected for life)
** Only leading Equals DAMOS - Assembly of Spartan Equals
** elected the Gerousia
** could only vote to accept/reject decisions Democracy Solon Cleisthenes **Ended Debt-Slavery, cancelled all debts
**Limited power of Aristocrats
EX) Land Redistribution
EX) Had scribes write laws on wooden tabliets

**Set stage for development of Democracy
EX) "Boule" --> Concil of 400
**4 Political Groups based on wealth

**Not perfect... No one was really happy with chages 508 BCE --> Elected to Power to make reforms
**Created Ten Artificial Tribes in Attica
**Centered Power in "Council of 500" (Boule)
*50 from each tribe
*Done to break up the power of the Aristocracts
*All adult male citizens could hold public offices now
CONSIDERED THE BIRTH OF DEMOCRACY!! ATHENIAN REFORMERS Ionian Greeks revolt against Persian Empire --> Athenians help them Persian are angry and aim to punish Athens! Battle of Marathon
*Defeats Darius's 1st invasion
Battle of Thermopylea
*Stand of the "300" Spartans
Battle of Salamis
*Naval Battle between Athens and Persia
Battle of Plataea
*Last battle b/w Greeks and Persian Greek Victory
*Boost Confidence/Prestige
*Athens becomes naval power
*Fomration of Delian League
*Loss would have meant no Democracy, Philosophy, Parthenon, etc... Rivalry between Athens and Sparta

DELIAN League vs. PELOPENNESIAN League **Many of the City-States grew to hate Athens *Spartans had better Land Army
--> Spartans invade Attica and surround Athens
--> Athenians can resist and hide behind their walls

*Athenians had better NAVY
--> used it ship in goods to counter Spartan Army
--> Lost big part in an attempted invasion of Sicily (Spartan
controlled and used for its rich farmland) PLAGUE OF ATHENS (430-429 BCE)
**Death of thousands of Athenians... including Pericles
**Crippled Athenians (morale low) Eventually --> Athenians lose (Spartans take down city walls and place "The 30 Tyrants" in charge)

**Weakens every city-state though :( City of Troy --> 3000-1200 BCE
(6 layer was probably the one attacked by the Mycenaean Greeks) Achilles vs. Hector (Trojan Hero) Athens side view Athens - Top View Originally only "Aristocrats" served in the Polis's Army Increase in sizes of Armies in Aegean Sea Region led to need for more soldiers.... Aristocrats look to other citizens to "fill in" the ranks --> they will become known as Hoplites PHALANX --> Wall of sheilds and Spears!! Phalanx fighting style required cooperation and built unity among men Overtime many Poleis experienced "Hoplite Revolutions" because they wanted more political rights and compensation for their service Roman Legion Phalanx Phalanx --> Alexander the Great Greek Phalanx at Battle of Plataea (Last battle of Persian Wars) Spartan Phalanx at Thermopylae (Battle of "300") Slaves Non-Citizens
"usually foreign born" Lower Citizens = Artisans, Craftsmen, Small Farmers, etc... Aristocrats =
Upper Class Citizens Typical Greek Polis Social Heirarchy Minoans - Characteristics Location = Island of Crete (South of Greece)
--> Capitol - Knossos
Political = King with Large Palaces, No walls built around cities
Economy = Sea Trade, Large Navy, Exported Luxury Goods
(Jewelry, Painted Vases, Lapus Lazuli, etc...)
Social = Possibly Matriarchal, Rich Artwork, Advanced Palaces with Frescoes and Running Water!
Religion = Polytheistic, Bull Worship (Fertility)
Intellectual = Linear A Script (not deciphered) - from trade with the Egyptians (before the Phoenicians) Connection to Greek Mythology:
Legend of King Minos --- Minos = Crete for King
Minotaur - Half-Man & Half Bull
Palace of Knossos = "Labyrinth" - maze with Minotaur

***The Legend of Athenian Hero Theseus*** Sent into the Labyrinth at Knossos
- Kills the Minotaur Fresco of "Bull Leaping" Palace at Knossos - Excavation Site in Crete Basics =
Very advanced civilization on the island of Crete

Legends/Culture influence Greeks and their Mythology (Iliad)
(Possibly is Plato's "Atlantis")
Declined after natural disasters (earthquakes/volcanoes?)
Taken over by the Mycenaean Greeks (approx. 1420 BCE) Basics = 1st Mainland Civilization in Greece

Warrior Culture - Piracy, Raiding, Quarrels with each other too
"Legend of Trojan War" = Mycenaean Greeks vs. Trojans
Adopt much of the Minoans Culture (including their language/writing)
Decline not 100% confirmed
--- Most Likely = internal fighting, invasion of "Sea Peoples",
Collapse of Trade at end of International Bronze Age Mycenaean Characteristics Political = King with Palace System, King and Elites are all warriors, Not Politically Unified
Economic = Take over Minoan Sea trade (Late 1400's), Raided and Conquered areas around the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
Religious = Adopted many Minoan practices and customs - Large burial chambers for Kings
Intellectual = Linear B Script - from Minoans, elevated and fortified (walled) Palaces/Cities
Social = We will look at that in the International Bronze Age section... *Kings buried with armor and weapons in elaborate tombs* Warrior Culture Homer's Iliad and Odyssey are based on these Greeks... Slaves Village Peasants (farmers/laborers) Merchants
Artisans/Craftsmen Warriors, Religious and Political Elite King and Ruling Family Militaristic Society Everything Centered around "Palace System" social-economic structure Power/wealth Concentrated **$$** Exploitation of... Common in Eastern Mediterranean Civilizations in this time period (Int. Bronze Age) Centered around Aegean Sea Mainland Greece has mountainous terrain --> not much farmland or major rivers Collection of Islands in Aegean Sea help contribute to Sea Trade Major Neighbors =
Minoans (Crete)
Hittites (Asia Minor)
Egypt (New Kingdom Empire) Thus... Sea Trade was the natural choice as populations expanded
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