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Diversity of Life Mind Map

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Ethan Jupp

on 11 May 2013

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Transcript of Diversity of Life Mind Map

Diversity of Life
Mind Map By: Ethan Jupp This image represents diversity of life to me because everything in the image varies greatly. In order, the letters are a crab, a spirillum-shaped bacteria cell, a bird, a snail, staphylococcus (cluster of coccus), a lamprey, an earthworm, a tree, and a sea sponge. This is a representation of the vast differences in the kingdoms of life, as well as many of the letters/organisms representing the vast array of phyla in the Animalia kingdom (the crab, bird, snail, lamprey, and earthworm). Additionally, the colouring of the image further represents diversity, due to the different colours, tints, and shades used in the image. FORMAT KEY Kingdoms Taxonomic Levels Eubacteria - Pink
Archaebacteria - Purple
Protista - Light Blue
Fungi - Teal
Plantae - Light Green
Animalia - Brown Domain - Red
Kingdom - Orange
Phylum - Yellow
Class - Green
Order - Blue Text Colour Arrow Colour Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Bacteria Archaea Domains Kingdom Eubacteria Characteristics include single-celled prokaryote thick cell wall some anaerobes, some aerobes decomposers in ecosystems no internal membranes shapes coccus bacillus spirillum which are which are which are spherical prokaryotes rod-shaped prokaryotes spiral prokaryotes that occur that occur that occur singly in linear chains singly in pairs in linear chains in clusters in pairs singly which is called which is called which is called which is called which is called which is called which is called which is called coccus diplococcus streptococcus staphylococcus bacillus diplobacillus streptobacillus spirillum Neisseria meningitidis Bacillus anthracis Spirillum minus Human Influence examples Bacteria responsible for many
diseases in humans Photosynthetic bacteria are one of
largest producers of oxygen in atmosphere Kingdom Archaebacteria Characteristics include unicellular prokaryote cell walls do not have peptidoglycan no internal membranes many are extremophiles meaning organisms live in extreme conditions examples thermophiles halophiles psychrophiles that thrive in that thrive in that thrive in very hot environments high saline environments very cold environments Thermus aquaticus Salinibacter ruber Moritella profunda Human Influence examples many important biotechnological processes use their thermophilic enzymes to withstand heat used to decompose organic matter in sewage Domain Eukarya Kingdoms Protista Characteristics include Mostly unicellular Mostly aerobic Diverse habitats Both sexual and asexual reproduction examples freshwater species marine species land species types Ingestive (animal-like) Absorptive (fungi-like) Photosynthetic (Plant-like) characteristics movement through cilia reproduce asexually through binary fission heterotrophic resembling shape of shoe's sole, covered in cilia characteristics movement through pseudopods and flagella reproduce sexually and asexually, depending on environment heterotrophic brightly pigmented, can grow to many centimeters characteristics limited movement, move through drifting reproduce mostly asexually through mitosis autotrophic glass-like wall made of hydrated cilia Human Influence examples many photosynthetic protists
contribute to atmospheric oxygen protists are responsible for many
human sicknesses (e.g. malaria) paramecium slime mold diatom Fungi Characteristics Plantae Animalia include heterotrophic enzymes excreted outside body cells walls are composed of chitin, not cellulose lack chlorophyll sessile Phyla Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Haptoglossa mirabilis Rhizopus oryzae Geosiphon pyriformis Aleuria aurantia Agaricus bisporus unique due to flagellated spores cell wall made of chitin others exist as single spherical cells exists as colonies with hyphae zoospores characteristics called while fast growing molds parasitic or commensal symbiont of animals sexually produced structures characteristics withstand extreme conditions that can form a distinct type of endomycorrhizae lives in plant roots reproduces asexually characteristics which allows plant to absorb more water and nutrients which allows plant to produce more sugars which the fungi uses known as sac fungi varies in size and complexity reproduces asexually characteristics unicellular and multicellular because spores are produced in a sac-like asci known as club fungus important decomposers of wood and other plant material fruiting bodies can sprout in mere hours characteristics which includes well-known mushroom Human Influence examples common foods come from fungi penicillin made from fungi examples mushrooms bread alcohol extracellular digestion for peptidoglycan made of but some are colonial or multicellular with some exceptions Human Influence examples angiosperms are the source
of most of our food many species are going extinct
due to human expansion Phyla Bryophytes Angiosperms Gymnosperms Pteridophytes nonvascular no xylem or phloem dominant gametophyte stage sporophytes depend on them seedless uses spores requires film water because for fertilization flagellated sperm must swim to egg characteristics which means which means Physcomitrella patens Cyathea brownii seedless vascular branching sporophyte, tiny gametophyte seedless uses spores requires film water for fertilization flagellated sperm must swim to egg characteristics which means xylem and phloem which means which allows taller organisms vascular dominant sporophyte stage naked seeds seeds are exposed water is not required for fertilization characteristics which means xylem and phloem which means which allows taller organisms Picea glauca vascular dominant sporophyte stage seeds with mature ovum seeds are exposed water is not required for fertilization characteristics which means xylem and phloem which means which allows taller organisms no mature ovum a fruit or flower is produced which helps with species dispersion by attracting animals Classes Monocot Dicot characteristics one cotyledon floral organs usually in multiples of three root system lacks main root scattered vascular tissue leaves with parallel veins which is a seed leaf characteristics two or more cotyledon floral organs usually in multiples of five root system has main root ringed vascular tissue leaves with network of veins which is a seed leaf called taproot Characteristics autotrophic stores extra food as starch forms cell plates in cell division sessile cell walls composed of cellulose contains chlorophyll Adaptations for life on land stomata waxy cuticle seeds apical meristems xylem and phloem for for for for for nutrient transportation gas exchange prevention against dessication embryonic protection roots and shoots Tulipa gesneriana T. monococcum Citrus sinensis Characteristics heterotrophic no cell walls reproduce sexually cells lack chloroplast cells held together with collagen with small flagellated sperm and larger non-motile egg Phyla Chordata Evolutionary Milestone notochord increased body and brain size,
increased mobility Characteristics bilateral symmetry segmented with jointed appendages endoskeleton and notochord three layers deuterostome coelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm Echinodermata Evolutionary Milestone endoskeleton Characteristics bilateral symmetry as embryo non-segmented endoskeleton water vascular system three layers deuterostome coelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm increased body size radial symmetry as adult Anthropoda Evolutionary Milestone segmentation Characteristics bilateral symmetry jointed appendages exoskeleton more sensory apparatuses than Annelida three layers protostome coelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm specialization, increased mobility Annelida Evolutionary Milestone segmentation Characteristics bilateral symmetry jointed appendages soft body hermaphroditic three layers protostome coelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm specialization, increased mobility Mollusca Evolutionary Milestone coelom Characteristics bilateral symmetry three distinct body zones soft body with hard shell most have gills three layers protostome coelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm increased internal organ specialization mantle head-foot visceral mass Nematoda Evolutionary Milestone body cavity Characteristics bilateral symmetry covered in tough cuticle soft body many are parasitic three layers protostome pseudocoelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm increased body complexity, digestive and reproductive systems Rotifera Evolutionary Milestone body cavity Characteristics bilateral symmetry mostly live in fresh water soft body complete digestive system three layers protostome pseudocoelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm increased body complexity, digestive
and reproductive systems algae and protists consumers of Platyhelminthes Evolutionary Milestone bilateral symmetry Characteristics bilateral symmetry many are parasitic soft body cephalization three layers protostome acoelomates ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm cephalization and distinct body plan nerve tissues becoming concentrated which is resulting in a brain Cnidaria Evolutionary Milestone tissues Characteristics radial symmetry has stinging cells soft body has two forms two layers acoelomates ectoderm and endoderm specialized structure and function,
muscle and nerve tissue free-floating medusa sessile polyp Porifera Evolutionary Milestone multicellularity Characteristics no symmetry sessile soft body lacks two layers acoelomates ectoderm and endoderm true tissues and organs nerves and muscles Euplectella aspergillum Olindias formosa Pseudobiceros bedfordi Ptygura pilula Caenorhabditis elegans Crassostrea gigas Lumbricus terrestris Hadogenes troglodytes Protoreaster linckii Giraffa camelopardalis Classes Mammalia Characteristics produces milk gas exchange four chambered heart endothermic fertilization development hair covers body through lungs occurs internally occurs internally Aves Characteristics only flying animals gas exchange four chambered heart endothermic fertilization development feathers cover body through lungs and air sacs occurs internally occurs externally in amniotic egg Reptilia Characteristics first animals to live outside wet habitat gas exchange three chambered heart ectothermic fertilization development dry skin, some armoured through lungs occurs internally occurs externally in amniotic egg Amphibia Characteristics first tetrapods gas exchange three chambered heart ectothermic fertilization development wet, moist skin through skin and lungs occurs externally occurs externally in aquatic egg Osteichthyes Characteristics swim bladders gas exchange two chambered heart ectothermic fertilization development bony skeleton through gills occurs externally occurs externally in aquatic egg help maintain buoyancy Chondrichthyes Characteristics has jaw gas exchange two chambered heart ectothermic fertilization development cartiligenous skeleton through gills occurs externally occurs externally in aquatic egg that lacks ribs Agnatha Characteristics jawless fish gas exchange two chambered heart ectothermic fertilization development cartilaginous skeleton through gills occurs externally occurs externally in aquatic egg that lacks ribs Geotria australis Carcharodon carcharias Salmo salar Ambystoma maculatum Pseudotrapelus sinaitus Passer domesticus Mus musculus Tursiops truncatus Orders Characteristics has hair and milk superior to Marsupials feeds offspring from nipples has true nipples has true placenta Placentals because young develop fully in mother due to fully developed placenta Characteristics has hair and milk superior to Monotremes feeds offspring from nipples in pouch has true nipples has short-lived placenta pouched mammals because young develop partially in mother due to partially developed placenta Marsupials Characteristics has hair and milk oozes milk from skin lacks true nipples lacks placenta egg laying mammals Monotremes Zaglossus bruijni Vombatus ursinus Eptesicus fuscus Homo sapiens Human Influence Humans are slowly destroying
animal habitats Animals are a main source
of protein for humans
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