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Big Stick Policy; Dollar Diplomacy; Moral Diplomacy; applica
Transcript of Big Stick Policy; Dollar Diplomacy; Moral Diplomacy; applica
U.S. Intervention in the Panama Canal Zone in 1903 allowed the successful rebellion of the Panamanians against the Colombians.
Roosevelt “negotiated” control of the canal zone from the Panamanians, with the understanding that too much resistance to the United States’ plan would result in military intervention.
The United Fruit Company’s interests were protected by moving troops into Latin American countries to ensure ideal conditions for fruit production and transport. (logistics and economics)
Big Stick Policy; Dollar Diplomacy; Moral Diplomacy; applications and impact on the region.
Emily Stiker, Ryan Hawtof, Sara Thistle, Kiersten Hafer, Lili Ruland
Big Stick Diplomacy
“Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick, You’ll Go Far.”
• Also Known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. (expanded upon it)
• Speak Softly and carry a Big Stick”-West African Proverb-basically use Force.
• Allowed United States intervention in Latin American affairs.
• Making the Panama Canal led to criticism of the US and international controversy.
• Roosevelt mediated a dispute between England, France, and Germany over territorial rights in Morocco. His settling of the Russo-Japanese war garnered respect for Roosevelt’s policy.
• Allowed effective bullying of Latin American countries in order to force compliance.
• Conflicts over Manchurian and Korean ports led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904.
• Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) was created
" This policy has been characterized as substituting dollars for bullets. It is one that appeals alike to idealistic humanitarian sentiments, to dictates of sound policy, and strategy, and to legitimate commercial aims."
“The force of America is the force of moral principle”
• Wilson’s take on a new and improved foreign diplomacy policy.
• Proposed in 1912 following Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy; based off of economic power instead of economic support
• The purpose was to change United States foreign policy to reflect its values
• In effect added a lecture and moral judgment to the Roosevelt Corollary.
• Built off of the belief in American Exceptionalism
• Allowed Wilson to force out Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta in 1914 after he came to power in 1913 on the pretense of protecting Democracy and freeing arrested American Soldiers.
• Allowed Wilson to aid the regime of Jean Vilbrum Guillaume Sam in Haiti after an Anti-American revolt took place. Instead of money, he sent in the marines.
• The U.S. placed troops in Nicaragua and used them to “select” Nicaraguan Presidents...to promote Democracy…
• "I am going to teach the South American republics to elect good men”-Wilson was the effective voice of “democracy” in Latin America.
• Increased tension between world leaders. (Mexico recognition problem)
• Began Wilson’s reputation as a “preacher,” the same reputation that would get him in trouble later on while drafting the treaty at Versaille with the Allied Powers.
Very effective policy
Somewhat brutal, insensitive
Exercised American Military (We’ll explain)
Seen as “invasions”
Provided a healthy economic atmosphere
Only for America, not affected nations
Encouraged Patriotism (propaganda)
Almost teetered on Ethnocentrism
Increasing America’s soft power
Eventually having to use force
Advancing American economic interests in other countries
Taking over governments and forcing our views upon
Taft put his new policy to the test in Manchuria, where he offered to purchase and develop the Manchurian Railway to prevent Russia and Japan from seizing control of it and colonizing the region. Both powers refused to hand the railway over to the United States, and the deal quickly fell through.
The United States also dumped millions of dollars of investment into unstable Latin American countries like Honduras, Nicaragua, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic.
Honduras had been broke forever and took several loans from England, yet it could not pay off any of them. Taft had US banks pay off Honduras’ debts to England with hope that it would lead to political stability.
Eventually the US had to send in occupation troops to protect their investments. (Only partially effective)
Quite costly for the U.S. which made it arguably less effective
Many attempted stabilizations through dollar diplomacy did not have the intended effect, destabilizing regions instead.
Taft's idea to further the United State's aims in Latin America and East Asia by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
Taft urges Wall Street investors to invest money in foreign markets in order to increase American influence abroad.
Loans were meant to improve infrastructure.
Treaty of Portsmouth (Extensive)
Made allies for the US
Called for further intervention in places like Haiti by the United States
Exercised American Military in economic diplomacy
Early opposition by both Progressives and Insurgent Republicans in the Senate
Assists in the security of the Panama Canal
Failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution
Ended Russo-Japanese War
Marked the last real event in an era of U.S.-Japanese cooperation that began in 1868.
Ceded southern half of Sakhalin island to Japan
Roosevelt left both countries a place in NE China as a means to keep Japan with their new found military strength from 100% driving Russia out.
The negotiations centered on access to ports and territories in Manchuria and Korea, control of Sakhalin Island, and the question of who was responsible for paying war costs.
Although the actual importance of Roosevelt’s mediation is unclear, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in moderating the talks and pushing toward peace.
This led to resentment from Russians and Japanese
Russia blamed the US for the first major fall of a European power by an Asian power.
Japan blamed the US because they felt unprotected to an extent they deserved.
2009: “Why did the United States go to war with Spain in 1898?”
2010: “Define the United States’ policy of Moral Diplomacy and discuss its impact on the region”
2012: “Compare and Contrast the foreign policy of the United States in two different Latin American countries between 1880 and 1929.”
2013: “The United States’ policies of the Big Stick and Moral Diplomacy in Latin America had different motives but similar consequences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?