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Unit 1: History of Psychology
Transcript of Unit 1: History of Psychology
"Everything Psychological is simultaneously Biological"
Early Psychology started with simple questions.
Science of behavior and mental processes.
Philosophy not Biology.
Youngest science; growing and is global.
Who are we?
Where do our thoughts come from?
Where do our feelings and actions stem from?
who are we?
who are we?
who are we?
who are we?
Socrates and Plato believed that mind was separate from the body.
Aristotle was the father of psychology.
Knowledge from experience.
First to test behavior.
Psyche and logos.
Mind separate from body
Dissected some animals and found "animal spirits" that flow through the brain.
Bacon and Locke
Locke says that the mind at birth is a blank slate.
acts on what comes through the senses.
Bacon = brain perceived patterns in random events.
Their views led to modern Empiricism
knowledge & experience
science should rely on observation and experimentation
Structuralism & Functionalism
Behavior- anything an organism does or any action we can observe and record.
Mental processes- internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior.
Other important peeps
2nd force in Psychology
Pioneered by Watson
Leads to conditioning and Operant behavior.
Pioneered by Pavlov and B.F. Skinner
Psychoanalytic theory by FREUD!
Theory by Sigmund Frued
3 Forces govern personality
3 States of consciousness
1st force in psychology
The good as opposed to the bad proposed by Freud
Rogers and Maslow
By Alfred Bandura
People learn through observation
Mental states are important
Studies mental processes including how people:
How people acquire, process and store information.
3 Different Methods of Research
3rd force in psychology
Focuses on self actualization and creativity
Concerned with internal mental states.
Relates to Neuroscience.
Behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed
Everything Psychological is simultaneously Biological.
Nature vs. Nurture
How are humans alike? How are they different?
Charles Darwin and Natural Selection
Organizing principle of Biology
Evolution an important principle in psychology.
Links to behavior (Polar Bears)
APA Ethical principles
1) Obtain the informed consent of potential participants
2) Protect them from harm and discomfort
3) Treat information about individual participants confidentially
4) Fully explain the research afterward
Case Study- the observation of one person with the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey- asks people to report their behavior or opinions
False Consensus Effect
Naturalistic Observation- observing without interfering with the situation
The Scientific Method
Wilhelm Wundt = lab
Augustine = body condition's influence on the mind.
Mary Calkins = 1st female psychologist, supposed to have 1st P.H.d. in psychology, 1st president of the APA.
Margaret Westburn = 1st woman to get a P.H.d. in psychology; 2nd female APA president
Ebbinghaus = chunking
Wertheimer = Gestalt psychology (whole greater than the sum of its parts)
The Hebrews= Mind and body are connected
Low self-esteem feeds depression
People with low self-esteem score higher on a depression scale
Research and Observations
Administer tests of self-esteem and depression. See if a low score on one predicts a high score on the other.
To detect naturally occurring relationships
Probability of cause and effect
Correlation coefficient- reveals how well one thing accompanies the other.
How do test scores predict your success in school?
Negative correlation: inverse relationship
Tooth decay goes down as brushing increases
Positive correlation: parallel (one set increases the other does as well)
More education = More earning potential
generate or refine
Placebo Effect- Experimental results caused by expectations alone
used to observe and record behavior
used to explore cause and effect
Represented by a scatterplot
Statistical value from -1 to 0 to 1
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variation
Standard Deviation- measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Statistical Significance- how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Id vs. Superego