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Solubility Rules - Fruit juice
Transcript of Solubility Rules - Fruit juice
Whats in an orange
I am here today to talk to you about Harvey Fresh Juice.
I grew up in Harvey and I spent many summer holidays working at the Harvey Fresh factory packing bottles of various juices into boxes. I've even been in the "Big Orange", but it has not been until recently that I have truly thought about the process of juice manufacturing.
Orange juice is a complex mixture of a number of different chemical species.
So whats in orange juice?
Chemical Components of an orange
(Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe)
(C, B6, A)
carotene (E160a) (ref 4,5,6)
Freshly squeezed raw orange juice is an orange solution with a variety of chemical species, including ions and molecules, moving in the solution. When allowed to stand in a glass various ions and molecules will remain in the solution and others form sediment at base of the glass.
So why do commercial bottles of orange juice at the supermarket look different to this????
How do we explain the difference between this .....and this ?
The term soluble refers to whether a given substance can be readily dissolved into water to form a homogenous mixture or solution. (ref 1)
An example of a soluble substance is when you add the solute table salt (Sodium Chloride - NaCl) into a solvent such as water in a glass. (ref3)
The solid Sodium Chloride (NaCl) dissolves and can no longer be seen in the colourless solution. (ref1)
NaCl +H2O = Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + H2O
NaCl solute and H2O solvent in a solution
Na+ and Cl- attracted to H2O molecules
Homogenous solutions occur when the molecules are evenly dispersed in a solution & do not settle out of the mixture. (ref 2)
Some molecules in solutions can briefly appear homogenous when shaken or stirred , but if allowed to stand ( Eg : OJ), elements will settle out of the solution.
When Sodium Chloride enters the water solvent its matrix is broken down. The polar water molecules interact with the positively and negatively charged ions of the NaCl molecule. (ref1)
Another example of a water soluble molecule is glucose (C6H12O6). Glucose has a great number of O-H bonds. These bonds are also polar and very attractive to the water molecules, which can again break up the greater matrix of the solid.
Structure of glucose
O-H polar bonds in H2O attract the H+ and O- atoms in glucose
The attraction of the polar water molecules replaces the strong charged forces holding the cation and anion together in the undissolved solid.
Some substances and elements are not soluble in water.
As well as Glucose, Citric Acid (C6H8O7) and vitamin C (C6H8O6) are other examples of water soluble species.
Are all substances soluble?????
For example Silver (Ag+) is insoluble in an aqueous solution when combinded with a chloride, bromide or iodide.
Equation : AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) = AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq)
A white solid (AgCl) is formed in the reaction and this is called the precipitate. The other product KNO3 remains in solution.
Rules of solubility
How do we know which species are soluble?
Lipids are made up of nonpolar bonds and therefore water does not attract the molecules apart. It forms a separate layer on the surface of the water.
Lipids and oils are insoluble
Insoluble species require the addition of emulsifying particles in order to promote dispersion, remain in solution and not separate out. However nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes. (ref1)
Minerals (Fe, Ca, Na,K,Mg)
Vitamins (C, B6)
The insoluble elements of OJ will separate out of the solution
Precipitation of insoluble elements can be useful to be rid of unwanted components in a solution but can also pose a problem in a product such as orange juice.
We want to keep the nutritionally valuable elements of OJ!
In manufacturing, the precipitation of some Vitamins, colour and fiber, out of the solution, may pose a problem to nutritional value as well as the appearance of the juice. Pasteurization strips the juice of vital elements such as vitamin C.
After pasteurization, the juice is reconstituted to include lost insoluble elements, colour such as Carotene (E160a) (ref 6) and lost vitamins. Some emulsification of insoluble species needs to occur to maintain a homogenous solution.
So what does this all mean for OJ?
Solubility and the rules associated with it have a great part to play in a commercial juice manufacturing setting.
A good understanding is critical to produce a commercially appealing product which:
maintains a consistent homogenous solution
avoids separation of insoluble elements
maintains a consistent colour within the orange juice
maintain an optimal nutrition level
Understanding solubility in manufacturing also allows:
Separation processes (eg filtration) to be utilised
re-incorporation of key components in final product
different textures in the final product (pulp vs no pulp)
Solubility is the answer!
Solubility and Precipitation are crucial issues in the juice manufacturing process in order to produce a stable and consistent product which the consumer is happy with.
Firstly lets examine what "solubility" actually means.
1) Zumdahl, S.,Decoste D. (2011) Introductory Chemistry. A Foundation. California, USA: Brooks/Cole
2) Monroe, M.,Abrams K. (1984) A Perspective on Solubility Rules. Journal of Chemical Education. Vol 61 pg 885
3) Salman, K. (2009) Solubility - Khan Academy. Retrieved from http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=zj...
4) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2013 ) Carotene. Retrieved from: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carotene
5) Lozanzo, J. (2006) Fruit Manufacturing. Scientific Basis, Engineering Properties, and Deterioration Reactions of Technological importance. Boston, USA: Springer ebooks
6) Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (2008) "Standard 1.2.4 – Labelling of ingredients". Retrieved from: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2011C00827
Picture and Diagram Reference
Solubility rules picture: retrieved from http://www.mychemistrytutor.com/sites/default/files/solubilityrules.jpg
Solubility Rules flow chart: Retrieved from http://upper.usm.k12.wi.us/academics/Faculty/BPack/chem/AP%20Manual%20Ch23-24-
Salt molecule dissolving: Retrieved from http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images2/171saltdissolve2.gif
Structure of glucose: Retrieved from http://ts4.mm.bing.net/th?id=H.4986492495793027&w=209&h=150&c=7&rs=1&pid=1.7
Glucose in water: Retrieved from http://ts4.mm.bing.net/thid=H.4814985915992563&w=135&h=136&c=7&rs=1&pid=1.7
Oil in water: Retrieved from http://www.photographyblogger.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Oil-in-Water18.jpg
Beaker of solution: Retrieved from http://ts2.mm.bing.net/th?id=H.5005665258700985&w=151&h=149&c=7&rs=1&pid=1.7