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Common Core State Standards and Adult Education & Literacy

An overview of the ELA Common Core Standards and the College and Career Readiness Standards that anchor them. Implications for AEL, including changes to 2014 GED test are addressed.

Katie O'Daniels

on 17 September 2013

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Transcript of Common Core State Standards and Adult Education & Literacy

College & Career Readiness
Anchor Standards

Implications for AEL
College & Career Readiness
Common Core State Standards
and Adult Education & Literacy

Mission Statement for Common Core State Standards Initiative
The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy.
The amount of new information produced the world during the four years between 1997 and 2002 was equal to the amount produced in the world during the entire previous history of the world.

Today, low skills jobs account for only 10% of our entire economy, in contrast to just 25 years ago when 95% of jobs required low skills.
Darling-Hammond, L., Barron, B., Pearson, D.P., & Scholenfeld, A.H. (2008). Powerful learning: What we know about teaching for understanding. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Consider This:
A Portrait of a Literature Individual
Demonstrates independence
Builds strong content knowledge
Responds to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose and discipline
Comprehends as well as critiques
Values evidence
Uses technology and digital media strategically and capably
Comes to understand other perspectives and cultures
National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) & Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2010). Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and technical subjects. Washington, D.C.: NGA Center and CCSSO.
Valid Concerns
Potential Positives
Key Ideas & Details
1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Literal comprehension--the student "gets it"
Students ground anything they have to say about text with quotes and/or textual references.
Wording is the same for both literature and informational text.
Deep comprehension and high level thinking, including close, analytical reading
RL 3.1: Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
RL 6.1: Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inference drawn from the text.
RL 9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas
Read for meaning; figure out WHAT the text says
3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of the text
Competence with Standard 1 is likely prerequisite

Specific grade level standards are subdivided into Literature and Informational Text, which take into account the different text structures and demands

Focus is on text centered discussion and thinking, which must be backed up with specific evidence.
Craft and Structure
Investigate authors' decisions and their effect on meaning; focus on HOW the text says what it says
4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Which words call our attention? What do we notice as we reread them? How do the authors' words create a mood, or what do they reveal about the author's attitude regarding his or her subject? How do the author's words position us as readers in order to set us up for particular interpretations?
5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole
How does the author develop the ideas?
For literature:
parallel structure
multiple story lines
For informational text:
Text features
Patterns of organization
6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Why did author write this piece?
What position does the author take regarding his or her topic and from what perspective is he or she writing?
How does power, or lack thereof, play a role in what the author wrote?
Whose voices are privileged and whose are marginalized?
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Look ACROSS texts, making connections and comparisons
7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
This standard integrates, reading, writing, and speaking & listening

Emphasizes media literacy; expects students to comprehend webpages, videos, illustrations, photographs, artwork, charts & graphs, and anything else they might encounter that communicates a message
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence
Only applicable to Informational text

Trace the argument an author makes to assess whether the support is relevant to the argument and whether or not the author has provided enough evidence to make his or her claim
9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge and compare the approaches the authors take.
For Literature:
Compare book to movie
Read books with similar themes
Conduct an author or genre study
For Informational Text:
Read texts with similar topic,
Conduct research projects
Analyze both sides of controversial topic
Match literature, such as historical fiction, to informational text of same topic
10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
"By the end of the year, read and comprehend [literature/literary nonfiction/discipline specific text] in the grades [2-3; 4-5; 6-8; 9-10; 11-CCR] text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range."
Appendix A: Research supporting key elements of the Standards
ACT Report: the primary factor that kept students from attaining benchmark is the level of text complexity, not the specific skills called for
Reading demands of college, workforce training programs and citizenship have held steady or risen over the past fifty years, but K-12 texts have become less demanding.
Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks
Includes list of sample texts, along with excerpts for most.
Organized according to "Text Complexity Bands" matching grade levels
Further subdivided according to literature or informational text
Includes sample performance tasks related to a number of the text exemplars
"The choices should serve as useful guideposts in helping educators select texts of similar complexity, quality and range for their own classrooms" (p. 2)
Writing and Language
Text Types & Purposes
Production and Distribution of Writing
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Range of Writing
Three types of writing are the focus of Standards 1-3, Argument, Informative/Explanatory, & Narrative; however, these broad categories contain many subgenres

As students advance through school the distribution of writing of each type skews toward argument and informative

As with Reading, the Standards emphasize a multidisciplinary approach and shared responsibility in regard to teaching Writing

The specific grade level standards describe in detail the expectations for each type and represent a progression of skills
Emphasis on quality--"Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience."

Emphasis on use of writing process--"Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach."

Emphasis on publishing via use of technology. For grades 4-6, there is a specific reference to keyboarding skills and minimum requirements--"Demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting." (W6.6)
By grades 11-12:

Standard 7: "Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation"

Standard 8: Evaluate and correctly cite multiple sources, both print and digital using advance searches, while avoiding plagiarism and over-reliance on a single source.

Standard 9: Links explicitly to the Reading Standards--"Apply grade 11-12 Reading Standards to literature/literary nonfiction."
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

In other words--WRITE A LOT!!!
Conventions of Standard English
Knowledge of Language
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
Use standard English grammar and usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when speaking and writing

Follows a progression of skills across the grade levels.
Primarily refers to word choice and sentence fluency
Understand unknown and multiple meaning words in grade level reading and content using a variety of strategies including context clues, word parts, and reference materials

Understand figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meaning (i.e., connotations & denotations)

Acquire and use grade-appropriate academic and domain-specific words and phrases
Presenter: Katherine O'Daniels
Changes to the GED starting in 2014
January 2, 2014--test scores DO NOT carry over
Computer Based Assessment
4 tests rather than 5, all completed on computer: Reasoning through Language Arts (3), Mathematical Reasoning (1:15), Science (1:15) & Social Studies (1:30)

Test Item Types: Multiple choice, Fill-in-the-Blank, Drag-and-Drop, Hot spot, Cloze, Short Answer, Extended Response

Test takers need basic computer skills including mouse skills, keyboarding skills, and ability to use test tools.

All items computer scored, including extended response and detailed score report electronically delivered , indicating performance at both high school equivalency and CCR
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Model
The Basics:
Created by Dr. Norman L. Webb as a framework to analyze the cognitive demands required to produce a response to a given task

Used to guide development of 2014 GED--80% of questions at DOK levels 2-3

Unlike Bloom's Taxonomy, which focuses on learner activities (verbs), DOK is about complexity of cognitive processes required to complete an activity (i.e., learner outcomes)

Complexity vs. difficulty
Level 1: Recall
Requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term; surface understanding
Recall facts
Apply a formula
Describe features or characteristics
Perform a process or set of procedures
Level 2: Skills and Concepts
Requires mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response; make decisions about how to approach a question or problem; imply more than one cognitive process/step
Identify and summarize information from text
Compare and contrast
Explain cause and effect
Predict logical outcomes
Webb's Depth of Knowledge webinar. Retrieved from http://www.gedtestingservice.com/educators/new-assessment
Level 3: Strategic Thinking
Deep understanding as exhibited by planning, using evidence and more demanding cognitive reasoning; complex and abstract; more than one possible response and requires justification of response
Analyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements
Compare actions and analyze their impact
Develop a model for a complex idea
Propose and evaluate solutions
Explain, generalize, or connect ideas using supporting evidence
Level 4: Extended Thinking
Requires high cognitive demand; very complex; make connections across multiple texts; select and devise one approach among many alternatives
Gather, analyze, organize and interpret information from multiple sources to draft a reasoned report
Analyze author's craft
Analyze and explain multiple perspectives or issues, within or across time periods, events, or cultures
Write and produce original work
Reasoning Through Language Arts
Includes Reading, Writing, and Language assessment targets, which are aligned with CCSS
Passages will be taken from workplace and academic texts reflecting range of complexity; 75% informational and 25% fiction
Reading: comprehension passages will be 400-900 words and include 6-8 questions
Language: Editing skills will be assessed using Cloze (drop-down menus) within workplace or community documents of 350-450 words
Writing: Extended response to passage of 550-650 words; scored based on 3 part rubric that looks for (1) Analysis of argument and use of evidence; (2) Development of ideas and organizational structure; (3) Clarity and command of Standard English
Reading comprehension and writing skills will also be tested through Science and Social Studies tests
Have students read and write A LOT, along with explicit instruction and feedback

Match readers to text, but also expose to more complex text with scaffolds in place

Make sure the students have opportunity to intellectual work on their own

Create a goal calendar

Take advantage of Critical Literacy Frameworks

Collaboration and Professional Development
College readiness sure, but career...

Budgetary concerns; limited resources

No focus on personal response or metacognitive strategies

Autonomous, one-size fits all model

Forward thinking--"wake-up call"

Emphasis on authentic, integrated instruction across disciplines--real world

Increased call for Critical Literacy to promote informed citizenry

Streamlined design that is limited in scope and explicates progression of skills
Examine Grade Level Standards
What changes take place as you move up the progression of skills? Does this progression seem to be reasonable?

What level of mastery is a typical (or specific) student in your class at right now? What might you need to do to move him/her forward?

Other implications for AEL?
Text Complexity Bands
Grades 2-3:
Floca, Brian. Moonshot: The Flight of Apollo 11. New York: Atheneum, 2009.
LaMarche, Jim. The Raft. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.
Grades 4-5:
Lin, Grace. Where the Mountain Meets the Moon. New York: Little, Brown, 2009
Grades 6-8:
Petroski, Henry. "The Evolution of the Grocery Bag." American Scholar 72.4 (Autumn, 2003).
Whitman, Walt. "O Captain! My Captain!" Leaves of Grass. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. (1865)
Grades 9-10:
Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagels. New York: Viking, 1996. (8th century BCE)
Washington, George. "Farewell Address." (1796)
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