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Copy of women in 40s & 50s + Roosevelt
Transcript of Copy of women in 40s & 50s + Roosevelt
-in the 1940s/1950s
-women in politics Life in the 40s + 50s -1939-1945 World War II
-America pulls out of Great Depression and economy shifts to great wealth
-technology improves (cars, frozen food/"tv dinners", television, the atomic bomb)
-women began working more, specifically in factories
-the suburb became the ideal
-influence of media; only technology were telepohone and radio (tv not until 1950s)
-thus magazines had big influence of society, values, habits, and aspirations Previous stereotypes on women The Working Woman Magazines Ladies Home Journal, Harper’s Bazaar, The Women’s Journal, Women’s Advocate, the Una, Revolution
-fiction poetry, articles on fashion and personal appearance, advice on household managmenet (cooking/cleaning/child care), features by/about famous people, articles on advancement in medicine, pros/cons of tv, education system, presidential candidates, film and book reviews, etc.
-many promoted women's rights and suffrage
-men’s magazines-directed at business, sports, or hobbies, and not at his masculinity. Shows females unconfidence at that time to be so dependent on magazines. Contributed to the idea of men as workers and women as consumers
*magazines formed and further promoted a culture of American identity and the roles of males and females in society. Furthered idea of nationalism by the things the magazines were instilling and promoting to its viewers -Seventeen (1944)and Glamour (1939) was aimed for young single women -Mademoiselle Magazine: marketed young, middle class women, magazine for “smart young women”. “smart” in regards to not only fashion but appeal to female college student and college graduate-used it as a guide for what clothing to wear, job-hunting guide, furnishing a first apartment, etc -after marriage, turned to Good Housekeeping or Ladies’ Home Journal-for cooking instructions, marriage advice, home purchases Eleanor Roosevelt "Women In Politics"(1940) In the White House, she revolutionized the role of First Lady by constantly acting in ways that were new to the position. She was the first (and only) First Lady to hold regular press conferences, write a daily newspaper column, publish books and articles, travel the nation on speaking tours, chair national conferences in the White House, address national conventions of social reform organizations, give a keynote address at her party's presidential convention, represent her nation abroad, travel battlefields, and direct a government agency, worked to oppose child labor, limit working hours of women, worked to remedy the unsafe working conditions of women, supported birth control, and people's rights to strike and bargain. -did not support women’s suffrage at first-thought traditionally that women should stay at home. Thought women might be influenced from men if they had the right to vote, which would alter the unique aspects of femininity -but became more supportive because she was concerned about the powerlessness of working women and finally supported the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1950s didn’t want women to become like men; cherished “women’s view” worked tirelessly to get women into the inner circle of politics and to ultimately run for office accepting of the current condition of the male-dominated society, but wanted women to have equality within that. Rather than fight for women power, she wanted to include women within the existing system. Thus, was very passionate about femininity, because she was afraid of the destruction of it. She realized the differences between men and women, and embraced that. 1884-1962 Eleanor Roosevelt was a significant figure in the progression of women's rights, helped start the 2nd wave of the feminist movement, and contributed to eradicating the stereotypical perspectives of women A Slow Progression.. 1. Newsweek article (1/17/1946)
Truman-"has told his advisers to be on the lookout for women who are qualified to take over several top spots including the positions of assistant secretary of state, secretary of the Department of Welfare, assistant secretary of labor, and special assistant to the president."
Eleanor's letter: "I use to have to remind the gentlemen of the Party rather frequently that we Democrats did not win unless we had the liberals, labor, and women, largely with us. Among our best workers in all campaigns, are the women. They will do the dull detail work and fill the uninteresting speaking engagements which none of the men are willing to undertake." Involved in:
bipartisan Women's City Club, League of Women Voters, Women's Division of the Democratic State Committee Thousands of children and young adults wrote letters to her, asking for help. They talked to her as a confidant with whom they could share the details of their lives, no matter how painful or even embarrassing to them. In their letters, they seem certain that the First Lady will come to their aid. II. Governor Herbert Lehman signed a bill introduced by Assemblyman
Jane Todd which makes it permissable to have equal representation of the sexes on all political committees (6/16/1939) -in House of Reps = have had 21 women members (11 republicans, 10 democrats)
-only 2 women state governors (both democrats)
-more women secretaries of state, state treasurers, state auditors
-men play politics like a game, where women view it as a serious matter
-1933 35 women came into important positions in washington and in the 40s even more -women felt it was not their responsibility to be interested in politics and left it up to the men..thus miracles didn’t happen when women were given the right to vote
-thinks women are influenced by their environments, experiences, and background-just like men are and thus women have not voted as a group, but as individuals-like men have
-no proof, but believes government has shifted to focus more on humanitarian issues (such as happiness of humans, health, education, and security) because of women’s interest
-more serious when women fail then men because people blame it on the fact that she’s a women
-Hitler and Mussolini examples of failed men
-certain things that women are more concerned about then men which are tied up with women's biological functions
-unity amongst women=child-bearing
-believes it will be a long time till women can have any chance of being president b/c of old age prejudice
-not about electing a woman but to work for a cause
-believes there may be a women's crusade against war which will be lead by women
-believes what will make women come together as a political force is if they begin to see economic and social changes changes have a bearing on home life
-believes it will be a gradual growth, an evolution
-differentiation between sexes at home is crucial because it adds to the flavor of life
-responsibilities of women do lie in domestic life
-believes something historically important will happen when women unite their interests -The presence of visible female role models does in fact increase the propensity for girls to express an intervention to be politically active-what we term the "role model effect"
-women are more engaged with politics when the issues are more directly relevant to them Women Politicians as Role Models for Adolescents