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History of Printmaking for Middle School
Transcript of History of Printmaking for Middle School
Printmaking is the art of transfering an image from one surface to another.
Bonnie Murray collograph 2009
is a printmaking process in which materials are applied to a rigid base, such as paperboard or wood, which becomes the matrix, or plate. Materials are then built up on top of the plate, like a collage, creating a relief plate.
Materials and found objects such as sandpaper, bubble wrap, string, cut card, leaves, rice, and grass can all be used in creating the collagraph plate. When the plate is finished, it should be sealed with varnish or other sealant and left to dry overnight.
Ink is applied to the collagraph plate and then paper is placed on top of the plate and either passed through a press, or rubbed with tools and hands. The resulting impression is called a collagraph.
– The opposite of relief. The surface of an intaglio plate is etched into. Ink is applied to the surface and then buffed off,
leaving ink in the recesses
- The surface of the plate is cut into to remove any areas you don’t want in the print. Ink is then
applied to the raised
. Linocuts, woodcuts, and collagraphy are examples of relief printing.
What is Printmaking?
During the printing process, an image is created on a hard surface (or "plate") by means of etching, carving, or building up. Then the image is inked and copied onto paper, fabric, or other surface. The result is a print. Multiple prints made at the same time make an edition.
Self Portrait with Eyes Wide Open
The Great Wave,
Still Life Under the Lamp
is symmetry around a central point.
Some examples of radial symmetry?
Types of Prints
Project: You will make a square collagraph plate using found objects. You will print your collagraph on small papers, then arrange the papers in a design that has radial symmetry.
Now: Use the rest of today's class to create sketches of what you want your print to look like.
- A Brief History -
China: First Printers
The history of printing starts in China with woodblock printing on cloth during the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) and later paper (around 80 AD). The invention of wooden movable type occured by the 11th century. Woodblock printing quickly spread to other East Asian countries. While the Chinese used clay or wood movable type at first, use of metal movable type was pioneered in Korea by the 13th century.
Fine art printmaking became established during the German Renaissance (1430-1580), during the early period of the Northern Renaissance. Its leading exponents were the Old Masters Albrecht Durer (1471-1528), Martin Schongauer (1448-91), Rembrandt (1606-69) & Goya (1746-1828).
Printing in Europe
Johannes Guttenburg invented the printing press in 1440, a design which remained relatively unchanged until the 1800s. The first book with woodcut illustrations is dated 1461.
Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties, due to his high-quality, intensely detailed woodcut prints & engravings, focusing on Gothic and religious subject matter.
Woodcut of family crest, 1522
Germany, 1471 – 1528
The Four Horsemen of the Apocolypse, woodcut, 1498
Knight, Death, and the Devil, copper engraving, 1513
Schongauer was a German engraver and painter who was the most important German printmaker before Albrecht Dürer. His subjects are mainly religious, but include portraits and scenes of ordinary life. He established the use of cross-hatching to show form and was the first engraver to curve parallel lines. He also developed a technique to make deeper lines on the plate, which meant that more impressions could be taken before the plate became worn down.
Griffin, engraving, 1485
The Crucifixion, engraving, undated
A Foolish Virgin, engraving, 1480
Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt created some 300 etchings from about 1626 to 1665. His career as a printmaker ran parallel to his career as a painter, but he rarely used the same themes in both media and rarely did he reproduce his paintings as prints. Above all, he was a great innovator and experimenter in this medium. His prints are mostly landscapes or Biblical stories, and he enjoyed showing realistic human emotion and narrative detail.
Dutch, 1606 – 1669
The Artist's Mother: Head and Bust, engraving, 1638
The Good Samaritan, etching, 1633
The Three Trees, etching with engraving and drypoint, 1643
New Trend: Japonism
Following the decision taken in 1854 by the Tokugawa Shogunate to open up its seaports to international trade with the West, Japanese art became a craze the French called "Japonisme." Japanese prints attracted many famous painters of the Impressionism & Post-Impressionism movements, including Vincent van Gogh, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Mary Cassatt, where they could produce colorful, inexpensive posters.
Japanese Woodblock Artists
Colourful, inexpensive woodcuts (Ukiyo-e prints) were produced in Japan during the Edo period (1800s). Artists Hokusai (1760-1849) and Hiroshige (1797-1858) are the most well-known, although there are many others. This type of Japanese printmaking had a significant influence on modern art throughout western Europe through the beginning of the 1900s. The demand for Japanese artworks was so great that an art dealer in Paris, sold in excess of 150,000 ukiyo-e prints from 1890-1901.
Hokusai, Kajikazawa in Kai Province (part of Thirty Six Views of Mt Fuji series), 1833
Hiroshige, Print 46: Rain Shower at Shōno (from ''The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō'' series), 1830s
Degas, The Ballet Master, monoprint, 1874
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, The Englishman at the Moulin Rouge, lithograph (1892)
Mary Cassatt, The Kiss, drypoint, 1890
Vincent van Gogh, Japonaiserie: Flowering Plum Tree (after Hiroshige), 1887.
Van Gogh was so interested in ukiyo-e prints, he painted exact copies of many of them!
Printing in Europe: Before the Press
In the Middle Ages, scribes copied text and illustrations by hand for the Church and kings. They would decorate or ‘illuminate’ the first letter on the page. An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text, usually religious- like a prayer book- is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders and miniature illustrations. Illuminated manuscripts were very costly and time consuming to produce.