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Caffeine - Chemistry Project
Transcript of Caffeine - Chemistry Project
Caffeine is most commonly consumed or used in coffee! It's also used/consumed in tea, guarana, and some soft drinks. Some claim that caffeine is the most popular drug -- supporting 150 million users in daily in the United States alone! (Find out why!) Caffeine is also available over the counter in the form of medication.
Plants use caffeine as a pesticide! Insects that try to feed on the plants are instantly paralyzed and die. A Short History Caffeine was discovered as early as the the ninth century in Ethiopia. There are many stories of which all follow a similar plot line, but the basic idea is that men first noticed the effects of caffeine in their animals, who fed from coffee beans and berries. It wasn't discovered till much later, however, that the effects could be increased by steeping the plants that contained caffeine. Much later, caffeine was first isolated in the lab in 1819 by Friedrich Ferdinand Runge, a German chemist. Caffeine Caffeine is a molecular compound found naturally in nature. It's found in coffee beans (of course!), tea, guarana and cacao beans. In the world of chemistry, the chemical's proper name is trimethylxanthine. Its chemical formula is C8H10N4O2. Chemical Properties Chemical Formula: C8H10N4O2
Chemical Name: trimethlyxanthine
Bond Types: Covalent (This is a molecule!)
Melting Point: 235 degrees Celsius
Boiling Point: 178 degrees Celsius
Type of Solid: Molecular Solid, but soluble in water.
Conductivity: Low Conductivity
Appearance & Texture: a soft white crystal or powder with an intensely bitter taste Polarity & Intermolecular Forces Caffeine Structure & Shapes: Sarah Potter Caffeine Caffeine As A Medication:
Caffeine is used as a medication to treat patients with conditions such as: asthma, gallbladder disease, ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), Type 2 Diabetes, and shortness of breath in newborn children. It's also used to treat and prevent migraines and headaches.
Why it Works:
Caffeine stimulates the CNS, or Central Nervous System. Caffeine works by blocking adenosine receptors because when adenosine connects with them, it causes cells in the body to slow down. Caffeine also affects the pituitary gland, and it response the gland will produce extra adrenaline that can help repair the body and speed up functions. Sources:
http://coffeetea.about.com/cs/caffeine/a/caffeinefacts.html Caffeine & the Brain:
In the brain there is a neurotransmitter called adenosine. Caffeine works by blocking the receptors so that adenosine cannot attach itself. When rest is needed, the brain releases adenosine to slow down cells in both the body and brain and induce sleep. By blocking the receptors, caffeine interferes with this process which creates temporary mental and physical alertness which is what keeps you awake. Recent research suggests that this could be the key to curing insomnia and chronic sleep loss. Electronegativity difference between H & C: 0.2. Electronegativity difference between C & N: 0.6. Electronegativity difference between O & C: 1.1. The bonds between hydrogen and carbon are non-polar. The bonds between carbon and nitrogen, and carbon and oxygen however are polar bonds. The blue lines represent bonds that have no difference in electronegativity, and arrows represent which atoms have a greater electronegativity or pull on electrons. Arrows do not necessarily mean in this diagram that bonds are polar, however, hydrogen bonded to carbon is still a non-polar bond. Overall, caffeine is a polar molecule.The intermolecular forces that are present for caffeine molecules are hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces, and of course London/Dispersion forces. The shape that carbon forms with the nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms is tetrahedral. This nitrogen, which bonds with two carbon atoms and has one lone pair, has a bent shape. This nitrogen makes three single bonds with
carbon atoms. It has one lone pair, so it has a pyramidal shape. Both of these carbons make four bonds. The first carbon bonds with two nitrogen atoms and makes a double bond with oxygen. The second carbon makes a double bond with oxygen, a bond with another carbon and a bond with another nitogen atom. Both carbon atoms bond in a tetrahedral shape. H C H H N C N C C N C H H H C N C C H H H O O Please Check Out: http://theoatmeal.com/comics/coffee
for fun facts and laughs about coffee and its history! Fun Facts about Caffeine: 1. Caffeine can be lethal...but you'd have to drink between 80-100 cups of coffee in succession!
2. Americans ingest about 530 million cups of coffee EVERY SINGLE DAY.
3. According to historians, even cavemen brewed coffee and understood its mood-altering affects.
4. Hitler received injections of glucose and caffeine to sustain his energy during World War 2.
5. Caffeine, like many other addictions, cause physical withdrawal symptoms when regular users refrain from ingesting it.
5. Caffeine pills used to be available for sale. They were called "No-Doz" but unfortunately many abused them and they were taken off of the market. One man died in 2007 from taking 30 pills.
6. Caffeine is not allowed if you are an Olympian.
7. Caffeine has been shown to increase memory, clarity, comprehension and reflexes short-term in users (no wonder we all love it!)
8. You can become addicted to caffeine in as little as three days of regular use.
9. Decaffeinated coffee/tea/etc. is not actually free of caffeine. There's less caffeine, but it isn't caffeine-free.
10. It's a misconception that coffee helps you sober up. It doesn't! Sufficient water and rest will probably serve you better.