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Punic Wars and Their Effects
Transcript of Punic Wars and Their Effects
1. Why did the Punic Wars happen?
2. What was one major event and the outcome of the First Punic War, the Second Punic War, and the Third Punic War?
3. How did it affect the farmers?
The Roman civilization was under threat from another civilization called Carthage.
Carthage was a powerful trading empire based along the north African coast.
in 264BC their rivalry intensified -it grew in to a series of wars that took place over a period of 120 years.
After the Punic Wars
After the Punic Wars, many farmers began to fall in to poverty and debt.
Many small farmers neglected their fields or had their farms ruined during the wars.
Now the farmers had no crops to harvest and therefore, could not pay back their loans.
They could not compete with the latifundia (large farming estates).
Breads and Circuses
Since the latifundia could use prisoners of war or slaves on their farms, many farmers closed their farms and flooded in to cities where jobs were still hard to come by.
The wealthy became scared of a revolt so they began to offer food to the poor and free entertainment.
The Roman rulers called this the policy of "breads and circuses".
Let's review your comprehension questions from last class.
How was Rome governed? Was everyone equal?
Who were the plebeians and the patricians? How were they similar? Different?
How was the government of Rome organized?
Why was there conflict in Rome between the classes in society?
How did Rome's System of Law come to be? How does it affect us today?
What were the Punic Wars?
How did the Punic Wars affect Rome's society?
First Punic War
Began when Rome wanted to seize Sicily because of its fertile soil.
The Romans had an army not a navy so they had to create warships.
Resembled theirs to Carthage warships but differed because they had bridges to connect Roman warships to Carthage ones creating a faux land battle.
In 241BC a Romans badly beat the Carthage's navy off the coast of Sicily.
Carthage was forced to give up Sicily and pay a large fine to the Romans.
Second Punic War
Carthage wanted Spain because of its great resources (iron, copper, gold, lead and iron).
Rome encourage Spain to fight to avoid Carthage being too close to them.
In response Carthage sent its great general Hannibal.
This was the start of the Second Punic War in 218BC.
In 216BC, after crossing the Alps, Hannibal defeated the Romans at the Battle of Cannae.
In response, the Romans assembled another army to stop the Carthagians.
In 206BC, Roman forces led by Scipio captured Spain and then attacked the city of Carthage.
Hannibal returned home to North Africa to defend his people.
Scipio's army was able to defeat Hannibal forcing Carthage to give up its navy and its part of Spain to Rome, making Rome the most powerful in the western Mediterranean.
Third Punic War
140BC all of Greece fell under Roman rule.
Carthage fell and was now ruled by Rome.