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The Respiratory System

Biology Project
by

Miceal Womg

on 21 September 2014

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Transcript of The Respiratory System

Nasal Cavity
Nostril
Pharynx
Epiglottis
Glottis
Larynx
Major Organs
The Respiratory System
Nasal cavity-
filters, warms,
and
moistens
air inhaled
Pharynx- transfers air to
larynx
from nasal cavity
Epiglottis- prevents
food
from entering the glottis
Glottis- passage of air from
pharynx
to larynx
Larynx- produces sound
Trachea- passage of air from larynx to bronchi
Functions
Lung- contains
bronchi, bronchioles,
and

alveoli;
used for gas exchange
Bronchi- passage of air from trachea to lung
Bronchiole- sub-passage of

bronchus

to alveoli
Alveoli- air sacs in lungs transferring
oxygen
to capillaries
Diaphragm- muscle separating
chest

and abdomen
Functions (cont.)
Ventilation
Respiration
Internal
External
Gas exchange and transport
Processes
Gas exchange between
blood
and the body cells
Oxygen is released
Carbon dioxide is transported into the
blood.
At
systemic capillaries
:
HbO2 (oxyhemoglobin) inside blood becomes Hb (hemoglobin) and O2 (Oxygen).
CO2 enters blood cells, and some combine with Hb to form HbCO2.
Most is converted to HCO3-, carried in the plasma
Internal Respiration
Oxygen:
Carried by
hemoglobin
in red blood cells
Carbon dioxide:
Carried in plasma (as a bicarbonite ion) in blood vessel
Gas exchange and transport
Ventilation - the movement of the
diaphragm
during respiration
Inspiration
Rib cage moves up and out.
Diaphragm
contracts
and moves down.
As the
pressure
in the lungs decrease, air is able to flow in.
Expiration
Rib cage moves down and in.
Diaphragm relaxes and moves up.
As the pressure in the lungs
increases,
the air is pushed out.

Ventilation
External Respiration
Gas exchange between air and blood in lungs
At
pulmonary
capillaries:
HCO3- is converted into H2O and CO2
CO2
leaves blood and capillaries
O2
enters red blood cells
some may combine with Hb to form HbO2
THE END


By: Caovinh Le and Michael Huang
Works Cited
Effects on Systems
All the human systems work together to make the body function
The respiratory system affects other systems
Other systems may affect it
Effects on other systems
Circulatory
system- receives oxygen from lungs, and deposits carbon dioxide
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchiole
Lung
Diaphragm
Alveoli
Changes with Age
As people get older, their bones get thinner, and the
diaphragm
gets weaker, making it harder to expand and contract the ribcage.
Alveoli
cannot hold as much air, making it harder to breathe.
How other systems affect it
Nervous system- sends
electrical
pulses to lungs from brain controlling breathing
Immune system- helps lungs fight off diseases and infections
Dugdale, D. (2012, November 10). Aging changes in the lungs.
U.S National Library of Medicine
. Retrieved May 15, 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/004011.htm
Kimball, W. (n.d.). 10 Proven Ways to Improve Breathing.
Will Kimball
. Retrieved May 15, 2014, from http://kimballtrombone.com/breathing/10-ways-to-improve-breathing/
What Is Asthma?. (n.d.).
- NHLBI, NIH
. Retrieved May 15, 2014, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma/
Improving the Respiratory System
Exercise
more often to increase lung capacity and function
Avoid
smoking,
which can cause lung failure and lung cancer
Eat healthy to improve overall lung function
Diseases (cont.)
Lung cancer
Can be caused by smoking
Cells lining airways thicken and are irritated
Loss of cilia- cannot keep out dust and dirt
Tumor forms
In case of malignant tumor,
metastasis
will occur and tumor will spread
Air supply eventually cut off
Only cure is to remove
lobe
or
lung
before tumor spreads
Diseases
Asthma
Airways irritated by allergens such as pollen, dust, smoke, etc.
Bronchioles inflamed resulting in smaller airways
Not curable, but treatable by special

inhalers

that reduce inflammations
http://www.clipartbest.com/clipart-y4i9ER6cE
http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/asthma/overview.html?inline=nyt-classifier
http://www.allgeek.tv/2011/09/08/worlds-first-lung-cancer-vaccine-comes-from-cuba/l
http://human-physiology---ashley-vg.wikispaces.com/Respiratory+Physiology
http://www.4shared.com/all-images/Ac-ysHHs/MTAP_lenas_group.html?locale=in
http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Respiratory/Respiratory_Internal_Respiration.php
Full transcript