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Ecological Models in Occupational Therapy
Transcript of Ecological Models in Occupational Therapy
Ellen Smith PEOP and PEO: Intellectual Heritage Kielhofner's MOHO: environments provide opportunities and resources as well as demands and constraints
Nelson's CFTO: occupational form contributes to personal meaning and purpose
Schkade and Schultz's Occupational Adaptation: person desires mastery and occupational environment demands mastery Intellectual Heritage
Continued Health care practice is focused on "fixing" impairments
people in the independent living movement pointed out that environmental barriers are typically the greatest impediment to a successful and satisfying life
the power of stigma and discrimination interfere with participation
Disability movements pushed for civil rights and promoted self-determination and empowerment
environment = barrier and facilitator of performance Intellectual Heritage
Continued Person Definitions Definitions Continued Person Environment Occupational Performance
& Person Environment Occupation models these models promote the significance of the environment What do they focus on? Ecological
Models in OT From where do these models draw information? used along with consideration for the person and occupation Bronfenbrenner's
Gibson's concept of affordances
meaning: elicit just-right challenge
Lawton's environmental press
press= demands of environment
just-right challenge = absorbed in occupation "Goodness-of-fit" Social-Science Theories indvidual's development family community institutions friends How did early models in OT contribute? How did the civil rights movement influence ecological models? Environment just-right challenge form matters! compensation values and interests, skills and abilities, and life experience
influences and is influenced by the environment occupational performance takes place here in these physical, cultural, and social components
performance cannot be understood outside of the environment
create barriers or enhance performance Occupation a series of nested concepts
in PEO: occupations are self-directed tasks that a person engages in over the life course
tasks are purposeful activities
activities are the basic units of tasks
in PEOP: occupations are goal-directed, meaningful task pursuits that typically extend over time
tasks are combinations of actions with a common purpose
actions are observable behaviors Definitions Continued Occupational Performance outcome associated with the ever-changing confluence of person, environment, and occupation
degree to which OP is possible depends on goodness of fit
success occurs when stigma is decreased, physical barriers removed, social supports acquired, or schedules become accommodating (change environment)
Main Assumptions environment is a MAJOR factor in prediction of success
often more efficient and effective to change or match environment
OT: promotion of self-determination and inclusion of people with disabilities
service recipient= primary decision maker
Clinical Application no specific assessments or techniques
OT: consider environment as extensively and frequently as he or she considers the person
Client-centered: assessments and interventions framed in terms of client's interests
Not an unyielding protocol applied to everyone Of the ecological models W&S page 441: Clinical Questions Conclusion These client-centered models require the OT to always consider the importance of the environment during the therapy process.