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History GCSE - Unit 2: Germany

1918-1939, including Weimar and Nazi Germany

Emily Myles

on 8 June 2013

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Transcript of History GCSE - Unit 2: Germany

Hyperinflation The Munich Putsch Nazi Takeover 1918 1933-4 1929 1939 1923 UNIT 2: GERMANY The events of Germany between 1919 and 1939 can be compared to two adjacent sweets, regarding the ups and downs of the country. Blue represents Weimar events, and red represents Nazi events. There are only 5 key dates to remember (phew!) The Treaty of Versailles Weimar Constitution Spartacists Uprising The Kapp Putsch Reparations French occupation of the Ruhr The Nazis emerge Recovery under Stresemann Collapse of Weimar Government The Lean Years Nazis gain votes THE GREAT DEPRESSION The Police State Economy Persecution of Minorities Churches Women Children: education and the Hitler Youth WALL STREET CRASH Nazi Policies 3 key areas:
colonies given to Allies
Alsace-Lorraine given to France
Saar controlled by League of Nations
army limited to 100,000
demilitarisation of Rhineland
tanks, armoured cars, heavy artillery and military aircraft not allowed
livestock given to France and Belgium
coal mined from Saar region by France
and fixed at £6.6 billion Learn these by heart! But worst of all Article 231 - The War Guilt Clause: accepting the blame for WWI Voters: men and women over 21 President: supreme commander of the Army, could dismiss and call re-elections for Reichstag VOTE VOTE Chancellor: chosen by President, needed majority support in Reichstag Reichstag: had the power to make laws CHOOSE Reichsrat: could approve laws made by Reichstag Article 48: gave President power to make any law in an 'emergency' Membership decided by proportional representation Freikorps were disbanded as part of an army reduction. Ehrhardt (the leader) and Kapp (a politician) plan to seize Berlin and set up a new right-wing government. The plan succeeded, but civil servants and trade unionists along with President Ebert, encouraged everyone to strike as an act against the Putsch. The Putsch collapsed and failed. A left-wing revolution which emerged from the SPD party (German Social Democratic). They demanded a state based on communist ideals. Demonstrations began, but were eventually put down by the army and Freikorps. Ex-militants in a parliamentary group The government moved from Berlin to Weimar to avoid increasing violent rebellions. First occupation was in 1921, the second in 1923. was met by passive resistance, to which the French troops responded violently. This reminded the Germans of the devastation of WW1. ANGER AT THE WEIMAR GOVERNMENT Violent French occupation of the Ruhr Dolchtoss theory - they felt betrayed by the government for withdrawing from WWI before victory was achieved. Blamed all problems on the politicians who signed the Armistice and Treaty of Versailles - November Criminals In desperate times, people turned to desperate measures... Adolf Hitler, an Austrian who fled to Germany to escape military service but served as a German soldier in WWI. I discovered my public speaking talent when I joined the DAP 25 point programme:
volkish - pure German people
Fuhrer concept
swastika adopted Causes:
printing off lots of money in attempt to pay reparations
French occupation of the Ruhr
strikes in protest of the Ruhr Consequences:
value of currency falls rapidly
inflation became hyperinflation
Nov. '23 - £1 = 1 680 800 billion marks
people with savings and pensioners suffered the most Useful number to remember as evidence of hyperinflation. The second key date, where things take a turn for the worse... The poor reputation of the Weimar government after the Treaty of Versailles and hyperinflation The growth in popularity of the Nazi party The humiliation for Germany during the French occupation of the Ruhr Hitler as an alternative leader, with the SA as his armed support General Ludendorff's support, and potentially the army's support (in Hitler's dreams) CAUSES The Nazis seized a beer hall in Munich, and made three leaders promise to support Hilter. Von Kahr, von Seisser and von Lossow But the next morning the police resisted the march and Hitler was arrested because 2 of the 3 changed their minds. Consequences:
20 deaths from shooting on both sides
Hitler gains mass publicity for free
Nazi party is banned
Hitler used his jail sentence to write Mein Kampf Nazi bible, key ideas include:
1. Lebensraum - living space
2. shifting the blame for everything onto the Jews
3. abolishing the Treaty of Versailles
4. Volksgemeinschaft - dominating races becomes Chancellor in 1923 Kellog-Briand Pact (1928):
64 countries agree only to use armies in self-defense New currency: the Rentenmark
based on property value rather than gold reserves
stabilises hyperinflation Dawes Plan (1924) and Young Plan (1929):
reparations lowered to more manageable amounts and extended time to pay them off
German Reichsbank reorganised with Allied supervision
US loans German workers stop resisting and French troops leave the Ruhr (1925) Locarno Treaties:
agree to keep existing borders between Germany, Belgium and France
makes France feel secure so further negotiations can be made
as a result, Germany can join the League of Nations awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1926 Meanwhile... The Nazi Party ban was lifted when Hitler was released from prison, and had survived underground during his time. The party was reorganised and controlled by Gaue (branches), led by a Gauleiter. A decline in seats in the Reichstag: 32 in 1924, only 12 in 1928 Rohm forced to resign as SA leader The American stock market crashed in October 1929
This means no more American aid for Germany
The world plunges into global recession Mass unemployment hits all classes of society Nazis promise bread and work for all This sounded good in comparison with the failing Weimar government Nazi Propaganda - simple, frequently repeated messages Fear of communism - farmers and businesses would suffer SA actions - military appeal, and causing unrest to make Weimar seem weak Promise of bread and work in Great Depression The Presidential Elections - although Hitler did not win, he gained mass publicity for Nazis Financial support from big businesses
to fund propaganda Hitler's charisma and appeal 230 seats in July 1932 elections - Nazis have majority but Hitler is refused Chancellorship President Hindenburg chooses von Papen as Chancellor and they work together against Hitler. Von Papen cannot hold a coalition, so is replaced by von Schleicher. Nazis lose momentum by November '32 ...but... Von Papen agrees to conspire against Schleicher with Hitler because he thinks he has Hitler in his pocket. The conspiracy worked and Hitler was appointed Chancellor in January 1933. The process was completely legal and democratic. Hitler used 8 methods to consolidate power 1: Calls for elections in March 1933 - wants to dominate cabinet 2: Reichstag Fire in February 1933 - the Reichstag building burnt down and a Dutch communist was framed and found guilty of starting the blaze. It was used to create an atmosphere of terror and make communists look bad. 3: Election results of March 1933 - Nazis gained seats, but still had to make a coalition 4: The Enabling Act - 4 year agreement to allow Hitler to make laws without Reichstag. The SA forced Reich members into voting for it. 5: The Police State - achieved by July 1933 6: Night of the Long Knives - the SA were becoming out of control, so over 400 of Hitlers enemies, including SA leaders were murdered in June 1934 7: Hindenburg's death - in August 1934, Hitler took on combined Presidentship and Chancellorship, becoming Fuhrer 8: The Army's Oath of Loyalty - the Army swore loyalty for life directly to Hitler in August 1934 1. Himmler controlled the SS and Gestapo

2. Legal system becomes fixed Hitler's bodyguard
smart black uniform
total devotion to Fuhrer
examples of the Aryan race Secret police
power to arrest and imprison opposition to the state All judges had to join the National Socialist League for the Maintenance of the Law.
German Lawyers Front established
People's Court opened Hitler could alter sentences if he wished. Catholics:
Concordat - signed by Hitler and Pope
Catholics would be allowed to run schools, churches etc as normal
Hitler would be recognised leader
Hitler broke Concordat: arrested Catholic figures and closed schools

some agreed to support Nazis in 1933 and approved of successful economic policies later on
minority set up 'Confessing Church'
banned in 1935 and arrested leader, Niemoller

The National Reich Church:
Nazi dominated church
Mein Kampf instead of Bible
swastikas instead of crucifixes
prayers worshipped Hitler and Nazis
Pagan ceremonies encouraged KINDER 1933: Law for the encouragement of Marriage - 1000 mark loan on marriage Motherhood Crosses - awards to women with many children Lebensborn - unmarried women could be come pregnant by SS men to have 'racially pure' babies 1943: Law to oblige all women to have 4 children KIRCHE Encouraging all women to attend the National Reich Church to worship Hitler KUCHE Professional women lost their jobs Propaganda heavily targeted women Ideal Nazi woman did not wear make up or trousers, had wide hips, neatly kept hair and dressed plainly KITCHEN CHURCH CHILDREN Decrease in unemployment Cost of living increases and food items were in short supply Workers lost all rights From 6 million to 300,00 Strength through Joy Offered cheap leisure activities to workers Beauty of Work No trade unions, no strikes, no bargaining for higher wages, and in 1939, could not leave job without permission Volkswagen scheme Nobody ever got a Volkswagen out of the pay monthly scheme because of the war Average working hours increased Average wages increased Improved working conditions National Labour Service 6 months compulsory unpaid manual labour, building public works, such as schools and autobahns Strength through Joy Used to control workers' spare time, and luxury activities were still unaffordable to most ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Beginning in 1933, there were 3 main forms of persecution. 1. Humiliation:
1933: Boycott of Jewish shops
1938: Identity card and passport stamps for Jews
1938: Exclusion from schools and universities
1939: Eviction of Jew 2. Legal:
1933: Sterilisation Law allows Nazis to sterilise minorities
1935: Laws against homosexuality strengthened
1935: Nuremberg Laws allow citizenship to be revoked
1939: Reich Office for Jewish Emigration established, to encourage them to leave 3. Physical:
1933: burning Jewish books
1938: Gypsies, tramps and beggars arrested and sent to concentration camps
1938: Kristallnacht - gangs smash up Jewish property, synagogues and shops
1939: secret extermination of disabled in 'euthanasia campaign' WORKERS Reducing unemployment
National Labour Service
Rearmament created jobs Self-Sufficiency
Autarky - self sufficiency
Scientists create artificial substances for foods e.g. acorns for coffee Preparing economy for war
46 bn. marks spent on weapons and equipment
Luftwaffe (air force) created
Stockpiles of materials Controlling the workforce
1933 Trade Unions banned
German Labour Front
Strength Through Joy Lessons and textbooks fitted around Nazi views
race studies taught that Jews were inferior and Aryans superior. There was heavy emphasis on PE, and on military for boys, and being a housewife for girls. Membership became compulsory in 1936
Boys aged 14-18
Involved basic military training League of German Maidens for girls
Aged 14-18
Taught the prinicipals of Kinder, Kirche and Kuche Opposition consisted of gangs drew anti-Nazi graffiti and listened to Swing music e.g. the Edelweiss Pirates The Second World War breaks out, and that brings us to the end of the unit!
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