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PACOM

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Mark Nicholson

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of PACOM

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Partnership - Readiness - Presence United States Pacific Command Area of Responsibility U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM), together with other U.S. Government agencies, protects and defends the United States, its territories, Allies, and interests; alongside Allies and partners, promotes regional security and deters aggression; and, if deterrence fails, is prepared to respond to the full spectrum of military contingencies to restore Asia-Pacific stability and security. Mission -Four Service Components
-Four subordinate Unified Commands
-Three standing joint task forces
-Additional supporting units Structure Personnel Camp Smith, HI Headquarters Command Commander Admiral Samuel J. Locklear III, USN Admiral Samuel J. Locklear III is a 1977 graduate of the United States Naval Academy.

Commanded - USS Leftwich, DESRON TWO, NIMITZ Strike Group, U.S. THIRD Fleet, U.S. Naval Forces Europe, U.S. Naval Forces Africa, and Allied Joint Force Command Naples.

Ashore, he served as Executive Assistant to the Vice Chief of Naval Operations, the 78th Commandant of Midshipmen, United States Naval Academy, Director, Assessment Division (OPNAV N81), Director, Programming Division (OPNAV N80), and as Director, Navy Staff.

He is a 1992 graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and holds a master’s degree in Public Administration from the George Washington University. -Joint Intelligence Operations Center
-Pacific Disaster Center for Disaster Recovery (DEM) Humanitarian Aid -Joint Task Force-Homeland Defense Forces Assigned The staff comprises over 530 Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps and Navy officers and enlisted personnel with the support of an additional 110 civilian personnel. Staff -U.S. Pacific Fleet - six aircraft carrier strike groups & 180 ships, 1,500 aircraft and 100,000 personnel.

-Third Fleet (California)
-Seventh Fleet (Japan) U.S. economic and security interests are inextricably linked to developments in the arc
extending from the Western Pacific and East Asia into the Indian Ocean region and South
Asia, creating a mix of evolving challenges and opportunities. Accordingly, while the U.S. military will continue to contribute to security globally, we will of necessity rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific region. Our relationships with Asian allies and key partners are critical to the future stability and growth of the region. We will emphasize our existing alliances, which provide a vital foundation for Asia-Pacific security. We will also expand our networks of cooperation with emerging partners throughout the Asia-Pacific to ensure collective capability and capacity for securing common interests. The United States is also investing in a long-term strategic partnership with India to support its ability to serve as a regional economic anchor and provider of security in the broader Indian Ocean region. Furthermore, we will maintain peace on the Korean Peninsula by effectively working with allies and other regional states to deter and defend against provocation from North Korea, which is actively pursuing a nuclear weapons program. The Nation’s strategic priorities and interests will increasingly emanate from the Asia-Pacific region. The region's share of global wealth is growing, enabling increased military capabilities. This is causing the region’s security architecture to change rapidly, creating new challenges and opportunities for our national security and leadership. Though still underpinned by the U.S. bilateral alliance system, Asia's security architecture is becoming a more complex mix of formal and informal multilateral relationships and expanded bilateral security ties among states. As military capability and capacity increases in Asia, we will seek new ways to catalyze greater regional security cooperation. Leveraging our convening power, we will expand the scope and participation of multilateral exercises across the region. We seek expanded military cooperation with India on nonproliferation, safeguarding the global commons, countering terrorism, and elsewhere. We will expand our military security cooperation, exchanges, and exercises with the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Singapore, and other states in Oceania – working with them to address domestic and common foreign threats to their nation’s integrity and security. This will also help ensure we maintain a sustainable and diversified presence and operational access in the region. We remain concerned about the extent and strategic intent of China’s military modernization, and its assertiveness in space, cyberspace, in the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea. To safeguard U.S. and partner nation interests, we will be prepared to demonstrate the will and commit the resources needed to oppose any nation’s actions that jeopardize access to and use of the global commons and cyberspace, or that threaten the security of our allies. Our alliances with Japan, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, and Thailand are the bedrock of security in Asia and a foundation of prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. We will continue to deepen and update these alliances to reflect the dynamism of the region and strategic trends of the 21st century. Japan and South Korea are increasingly important leaders in addressing regional and global issues, as well as in embodying and promoting our common democratic values. We are modernizing our security relationships with both countries to face evolving 21st century global security challenges and to reflect the principle of equal partnership with the United States and to ensure a sustainable foundation for the U.S. military presence there. In partnership with our allies, the United States is helping to offer a future of security and integration to all Asian nations and to uphold and extend fundamental rights and dignity to all of its people. These alliances have preserved a hard-earned peace and strengthened the bridges of understanding across the Pacific Ocean in the second half of the 20th century, and it is essential to U.S., Asian, and global security that they are as dynamic and effective in the 21st century. -Component command personnel numbers include more than
1,200 Special Operations personnel.

-U.S. Special Operations Command, Pacific (SOCPAC) - (Hawaii)
-353rd Special Operations Group (Japan)
-Navy Special Warfare Unit One (Guam)
-Joint Special Operations Task Force - Philippines

-U.S. Forces, Korea (Yongsan Army Garrison, Seoul)
-Alaskan Command (Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage) -Department of Defense Civilians and Contractors in the Pacific Command AOR number about 40,000.

-The U.S. Coast Guard supports U.S. military forces in the region and has approximately 27,000 personnel in its Pacific Area. Pacific Ocean Island Disputes China claims historical records (discovery)
Philippines claims sovereignty over the shoal and occupies
Philippines claims EEZ or Economic Exclusive Zone (Article 55 of UN)
Philippines used warship to move Chinese fishermen from the shoal Scarborough Shoal Disputed by China, Vietnam, and Taiwan
China took control of the islands in 1974 after a one day naval and amphibious battle with Vietnam
Vietnam protested to UN, but China vetoed all resolutions
Economic Resources Paracel Islands China / Japan Island Dispute Disputed by China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and Brunei
Many historical claims of ownership
French Empire, to Vietnam, to PRC, to Japan WWII
Fishing / Oil / Natural Gas
Economic Security Spratly Islands Japan: Takeshima
Republic of Korea: Dokdo
Currently occupied by ROK with a police station
US/Japan ceased using the islands as bombing ranges in 1952 to allow Japanese Fishermen to fish
ROK President Syngman Rhee created the “Syngman Rhee Line” encompassing Lioncourt Rocks in 1952 Lioncourt Rocks Islands are under Russian jurisdiction
Japan claims southern most islands are Japanese northern territory
Treaty of Commerce, Navigation and Delimitation of 1855 designated Japanese and Russian lines
Russia has military on the islands for defense Kuril Islands 51 Countries attended, 48 signed
Soviet Union did not sign – strong objections
China not invited due to Chinese Civil War and no recognized government (but did send objections)
Korea(s) did not attend and did not sign
Disputed Islands not specifically addressed in Treaty Treaty of Peace with Japan
(aka The Treaty of San Francisco) 8 Islands = 7 square KM
Japanese: Senkaku
Chinese: Diaoyu
Taiwan: Tiaoyutai
China claims 14th century rights (historical references)
Japanese control since 1895 (annexed after 10 years)
U.S. management after WWII until 1972 (Treaty of Peace with Japan 1951)
Oil reserves discovered in 1968 (also shipping lanes / fishing) China / Japan Island Dispute PACOM shift is drawing attention to the region Significant resources in surrounding waters
Ability or lack of ability to exercise influence or enforcement
Lack of inclusive bilateral or multilateral agreements
Discovery must be followed by occupation by sovereign nation (international law)
Historical claims of China that date back centuries and are the basis of assertions by the PRC Island Dispute Themes Battlespace
China presence
India growing
North Korea
Size of AO
Terrorist Activities
Ocean policing
UNCLOS?
Missile Defense Command & Control
Joint Environment (Conductor / Back seat)
Language and network communication issues
Conflicting Influences
Coordination / relationships with neighboring countries (permission)
Cyber Space (monitoring / protecting)
Cost of operations Command & Control
Battlespace Issues Theater
Cooperation Questions 1. Synchronize USPACOM actions across the U.S. Government, associated Combatant Commands, regional Allies, and partners.

2. Through continual forward presence enabled by an adaptive regional military posture and enhanced by synergy with capable partners, maintain security of the regional commons.

3. Provide conventional and strategic military capabilities for extended deterrence of aggression against the United States, its territories, Allies, and interests.

4. Maintain ready forces and plan, train, and exercise to accomplish the full range of military contingencies.

5. In particular, concentrate on five Focus Areas: Allies and Partners, China, India, North Korea, and Transnational Threats. Commander's Intent To protect and defend the United States, its territories and interests; to promote regional security and deter aggression; and to be prepared to respond to the full spectrum of military contingencies. METHOD PURPOSE END STATE The United States, its territories, and interests are protected; and the Asia-Pacific region is stable and secure. -Strengthen and advance alliances and partnerships
-Mature the U.S.-China military-to-military relationship -Develop the U.S.-India strategic partnership
-Remain prepared to respond to a Korean Peninsula contingency
-Counter transnational threats Commander's Priorities HOW WE SEE THE WORLD ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE WHY NAVY? During a press conference in Bali, Indonesia, Panetta stated that “the purpose of my visit is to make very clear to this region and to our allies in the Pacific that we – and when I say we, the president of the United States and the Department of Defense – made very clear that the Pacific will remain a key priority for the United States, that we will maintain our force projection in this area, that we will maintain a presence in this area, that we will remain a Pacific power, and that we will do whatever we can to try to work with the nations of this area to develop a strong security and cooperative relationship.” Approximately 325,000, or about one-fifth of total U.S. military strength -Marine Corps Forces, Pacific - two Marine Expeditionary Forces and about 85,000 personnel assigned.

-I Marine Expeditionary Force (California)
-III Marine Expeditionary Force (Japan)
-3d Marine Expeditionary Brigade (Japan) -U.S. Pacific Air Forces - 40,000 airmen and 300+ aircraft, and 100 additional aircraft in Guam.

-Fifth Air Force (Japan)
-Seventh Air Force (Korea)
-Eleventh Air Force (Alaska)
-Thirteenth Air Force (Hawaii) -U.S. Army Pacific has more than 60,000 personnel assigned, including five Stryker brigades.

-25th Infantry Division (Hawaii and Alaska)
-94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command (Hawaii & Okinawa Japan)
-United States Army Alaska
-United States Army Japan
-9th Regional Support Command (USAR) GDP IN PACOM Korean Maritime Border Incidents
1999 – Current
Northern Limit Line (NLL) in 30 Aug 1953
Unilateral
Unknown to DPRK
1973 Cable from Dept of State to Dept of Def
“We are aware of no evidence that NLL has ever been officially presented to North Korea.”
1999 DPRK Unilaterally Set Lines for NLL
Incidences Since
1999, 2002, 2004, 2009, 2012
First and Second Battle of Yeonpyeong
Battle of Daecheong MAJOR CONFLICTS (Korea) MILITARY SPENDING IN PACOM RELIGIONS IN PACOM FOREIGN ASSISTANCE IN PACOM POPULATIONS IN PACOM Philippines Islamic Insurgency
1969 – Current
Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)
Abu Sayyaf
Jemaah Islamiyah
2001: U.S. Joins Philippines Government in War on Terror
Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines MAJOR CONFLICTS (Philippines) 1979 Carter Broke Relations with Taiwan
Republic of China
23 Nations Recognize Taiwan Officially
Signed Taiwan Relations Act to Maintain:
Commercial, Cultural, and Unofficial Relations
Allows for the Sale of Arms to Taiwan
U.S. NOT Required to Act Militarily to PRC MAJOR CONFLICTS (Taiwan) Sri Lankan Civil War
1983 - 2009
Internal Conflict in Burma
1948 – Current
Thai-Cambodian Border Dispute
2008 – Current
Southern Thailand Insurgency
2004 – Current MINOR CONFLICTS Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines
2002 – Current
600 U.S. Military Personnel
CIA: Elite Paramilitary Officers
SOCPAC Plays a Large Role
Humanitarian and Civil Assistance Role
Seabees are Deployed on Continual Basis
Schools, Roads, Water Storage, etc. MAJOR CONFLICTS (Philippines) 2011: U.S. Approved $5.8B Arms Sale to Taiwan
Requested 60 F-16
Received Upgrades for Aging 1992 Fleet
Angered China
Balancing Politics of Diplomacy with Taiwan
Many Nationalist who Advocate “Action”
Remains Tense at Present MAJOR CONFLICTS (Taiwan) U.S. Forces Japan
Army 2,341
Navy 3,740
Air Force 12,398
Marines 17,009
5,500 Civilians
Island Disputes with China
Missile Threat from North Korea
Relocation of U.S. Forces from Okinawa to Guam, Australia, and Hawaii MAJOR CONFLICTS (Japan) Established 1 July 1957
HQ: Yokota Air Base (near Tokyo)
Bases on Honshu, Kyushu, Okinawa
CO: Lieutenant Burton Field (USAF)
Works with JSDF in Many Areas:
Maritime Defense
Ballistic Missile Defense
Domestic Air Control
Communications Security (COMSEC)
Disaster Response Operations MAJOR CONFLICTS (Japan) Current Situation
DPRK Pull Out of NPT in 2003
DPRK was in 6 Party Talks from 2003 – 2009
DPRK
South Korea
Russia
China
Japan
United States
Agree to Discontinue Program for Aid in 2007
13 Apr 2009 – Quit Negotiations After UNSC Condemnation
Inspectors Kicked Out, Nuclear Program Resumed
25 May 2009 – Tested Nuclear Device
Food Shortages MAJOR CONFLICTS (Korea) Maritime Border of North and South Korea MAJOR CONFLICTS (Korea) Korean War
1950 – 1953 (Armistice)
U.S. Forces Korea (est. 1954, Seoul)
Eighth United States Army (EUSA)
19,755
U.S. Air Forces Korea (USAFK)
274
Marine Forces Korea (MARFORK)
8815
U.S. Naval Forces Korea (CNFK)
242
Commanding Officer: General James Thurman (USA) MAJOR CONFLICTS (Korea) Environment Conflicts RECENT OPERATIONS COMMAND OPERATION PACIFIC PASSAGE JTF-519: Commanding General III MEF

-Overseas Humanitarian Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) authorized $35 billion dollars by SECDEF OPERATION TOMODACHI JAPAN EARTHQUAKE 2011 JTF-505 (JFLCC): Commanding General, 3d MARDIV
-Voluntary Assisted Departure (VAD) of United States citizens
-Assisted over 7,000 citizens, military, and families in voluntary evacuation due to threat of radiation fallout -Area of Responsibility
-Mission
-Command structure, personnel, HQ location, forces commanded
-C2 and battlespace awareness issues unique to this command
-Major issues
-Involvement in recent/ongoing contingency operations
-Unique impact of environmental factors within the AOR
-Theater security cooperation activities ALLIANCES MILITARY PRESENCE SECURITY REBALANCE TOWARD ASIA-PACIFIC EMPHASIZE ALLIANCES STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP - INDIA NORTH KOREA ASIA - SECURITY ARCHITECTURE INDIA OPERATIONAL ACCESS CHINA AGENDA Secretary of Defense
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