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Cell structure and function

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by

Jean Battinieri

on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of Cell structure and function

The characteristics of life.
Biology
The study of life
Biologists study life on many different levels from the molecular to the global.
All life has a high degree of biological order that exists on all levels. Each level BUILDS on the levels BELOW it.
Levels of Organization
Biome
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Species/Organism
Organ System
Organ
Tissue
Cell
Organelle
Molecules
Atoms
Biosphere
Sub-Atomic Particle
All life exhibits a high degree of order.
Biological order exists on all levels of organization. Each level BUILDS on the levels BELOW it.
A living thing = BIOTIC.
A non-living thing = ABIOTIC
Organism/Species
Organ System
Organs
All living things require, use energy, and go through metabolism
cell structure and function
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Two major categories
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
less complex
smaller
no nucleus
has ribosomes
has cytoplasm
cell membrane
genetic material - usually single chromosome called a nucleoid
could have a plasmid
cell wall can be made of peptidoglycans a type of protein-sugars
contains no membrane bound organelles
can reproduce through conjugation (sexually or through binary fission (asexually)
complex
membrane bound organelles
cytoplasm
genetic material - usually multiple chromosomes
nucleus
cell membrane
ribosomes
larger in size
plasma membranes made of phospholipids
reproduce using cell cycle/cell division
Types of bonding?
Review of chemistry
covalent - sharing between atoms of the same molecule - strong bond
ionic - lose or gain of electron between atoms causing an attraction between the atoms to form a molecule - strong bond
hydrogen - between a (+)hydrogen atom of one molecule with the (-)side of an atom of a different molecule - usually Oxygen, Nitrogen, or Fluorine - weak bond
Some responses to the environment might be
shivering,
sweating,
jumping at a loud noise
migration at change of seasons
All living things grow and develop
unicellular organisms
multicellular organisms
All living things reproduce
sexually or asexually
All living things evolve
macroevolution new species develop from an existing species
microevolution change in allele frequencies from generation to generation
All living things use a Genetic Code
All living things are made up of cells and are organized
All living things maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is maintaining a stable internal environment
This is regulated due to changes within the organism or in the external environment
Control center monitors activity and turns on or off processes that may effect the balance using positive or negative feedback mechanisms
Examples of things that are regulated in humans to maintain homeostasis
pH
osmoregulation -water
thermoregulation -temperature
blood pressure
blood glucose levels
ion levels
The characteristics of life:
all living things use and require energy to go through metabolism
all living things have the same genetic code
all living things evolve over time
all living things reproduce
all living things grow and develop
all living things are made of cells
all living things maintain homeostasis
Leeuwenhoek
Virchow
Hooke
The Cell Theory
All living things are made up of cells
cells are the basic structure and function of living things
cells come from existing cells

animal
plant
both
Full transcript