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Social 30-1 Unit 1 Review

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Kevin Gilchrist

on 23 May 2012

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Transcript of Social 30-1 Unit 1 Review

Social Studies 30-1:
Unit 1 Review
Mr. Kevin Gilchrist
Sir Winston Churchill High School

What is an ideology?
A set of principles or ideas that explains your world and your place within it, which is based on certain assumptions about human nature and society and provides an interpretation of the past, an explanation of the present, and a vision for the future.
All ideologies contain a certain set of beliefs and values about things, they are concerned with the "essential questions of life".
What is the nature of human beings?
How should society be organized?
How has the world worked in the past?
How should society work in the future?
Views on Government
Views on Human Nature

Hobbes
Locke
Rousseau
Thomas Hobbes' Views on Government
Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher living during the English Civil War.
The war was a bitter struggle between the king and Parliament that ended when King Charles I was beheaded.
After that, a republic was formed under Oliver Cromwell, a strict Puritan, whose government tyrannized the people and brutally punished anyone who disagreed with its policies.
These events profoundly influenced Hobbes. He believed that human nature is characterized by fear, violence, and dangerous self-interest
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Nature of humans to be selfish and to care nothing about others anarchy, chaos, violence and destruction.
An individual’s life was solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
Individuals are born with both passion and reason.
Reason shows people that the only solution is the establishment of a society with a stable government.
Government needs to be backed by force.
Promise of obedience in return for security and order.
Choice between absolute power or complete lawlessness.
Freedom is only possible if the people surrender their liberty to an all-powerful sovereign.
Hobbes did not think it was possible to have both freedom and security.
Resistance to the sovereign is almost never justified.
Sovereigns can maintain peace only if they have complete and unlimited authority.
If a sovereign loses power, he ceases to be sovereign and the people are left to their own devices for self-protection, until they agree to give their obedience to a new sovereign who can protect them.
“No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”
Hobbes is not a classical liberal,
he is advocating absolutism.
John Locke (1632-1704)
The purpose of government is to protect
and foster the individual’s rights and liberties.
John Locke's Views on Government
Men are fundamentally reasonable are inclined to respect these natural rights.
It is in man’s interest to form an organized society to protect his property and his other natural rights.
Political society and government must rest on the consent of the people.
Because man is by nature free and independent, no one can rule him without his own consent.
The purpose of government is to protect and foster the individual’s rights and liberties.
Government should interfere as little as possible in man’s activities.
People are most free when they are governed the least.
Men relinquish the power to protect their own property and maintain their own rights in order to enjoy their liberties more securely, and nobody is obliged to obey unless he has freely agreed to do so.
All laws must rest in the will of the majority, and must designed for no other end than for the good of the people.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
"Man is born free, and is everywhere in chains."
According to Rousseau, before the existence of society, man lived like the animals; without speech, culture and mature thought, yet life was peaceful.
Natural man was neither moral nor vicious; he was not unhappy or happy.
Natural man differed from the animals in his ability to improve himself, at some point men united in a society in order to improve themselves.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Views on Government
Must establish a society that will protect everyone, and in which every man will remain as free as he was before.
The solution is for all men to conclude a social contract and agree to place themselves under the direction of the general will.
The general will is always right because it functions in the best interests of the entire group.
A government deserves to be obeyed only if its actions follow the general will.
The general will = the common good; it is not necessarily the majority opinion.
The will of just one person, for instance, might be the general will if its object was the common good.
Those who do not agree with the general will must be forced to obey.
Political and Economic
Spectrums

Individualism vs. Collectivism
What is individualism?
What is collectivism?
Individualism is an ideology based on the primacy of individual freedom; values the freedom and worth of the individual, sometimes over the security and welfare of the group. A supporter of the principles of individualism might be referred to as an individualist.
Collectivism is an ideology based on the primacy of collective welfare; values the goals of the group and the common good over the goals of any one individual. A supporter of the principles of collectivism might be referred to as a collectivist.
Principles of Individualism
Principles of Collectivism
Individualism is one possible foundation of ideology and is the foundation in particular of liberalism, the prevailing ideology in Western democracy.
Principles of Individualism
rule of law
individual rights and freedoms
private property
economic freedom
self-interest
competition
A key principle in liberal democracies that states that every individual is equal before the law and all citizens are subject to the law.
Competition is seen as an incentive for individuals and groups to work harder and more efficiently
The freedom to buy what you want
and to sell your labour, idea or product
to whomever you wish.
One's personal interest or
advantage.
Something that is owned by an individual (real estate) or other forms of physical possessions, or intellectual property. The right to protection of private property is a natural extension of the worth of each individual.
A key principle of individualism and an important feature of liberal democracies; examples include freedom of religion, freedom of association, and the right to life, liberty, and the security of the person.
The principles of collectivism are the foundation of ideologies such as communism and socialism. While the principles of individualism formed the basis of the classical liberal ideology that originally guided modern democracies, over time most liberal democracies have evolved and incorporated aspects of collectivism into their political and social systems.
Principles of Collectivism
economic equality
co-operation
public property
collective interest
collective responsibility
adherence to collective norms
A principle common to collectivist ideologies. Governments may try to foster economic equality through tax policies and by ensuring that all people earn equal wages for work of similar value.
Working together to the same end; a principle emphasized by collectivist ideologies.
Anything not privately owned by individuals. Generally speaking, public property is owned by the state or the community, and managed according to the best interests of the community.
The principle of collective interest states that while individual members may have individual interests, these interests are often better addressed by making them a common set of interests that the group can address together.
Holding a whole group or collective responsible for the actions of individuals within the group or collective.
Faithful observance of the norms or standards imposed on members of a group as a condition of membership in the group. These norms can relate to conduct, values or appearance.
Left-Right Spectrum in the 19th Century
EXTREME RIGHT
EXTREME LEFT
LEFT
CENTRE
RIGHT
reactionaries
conservatives
moderates
liberals
radicals
(favoured returning
to the way things
were done in the past)
(favoured maintaining
the status quo)
(favoured some
minor changes)
(favoured some changes)
(favoured far-reaching changes)
Left-Right Spectrum in the 20th Century
EXTREME LEFT
radicals
(favour immediate and fundamental social change; extreme radicals favour change through violence)
LEFT
liberals
(favour change through
peaceful and legal
means; through
government policy)
RIGHT
EXTREME RIGHT
moderates
(favour gradual change)
conservatives
(usually content with the status
quo and maintaining existing
traditions and social order)
reactionaries
(favour a return to the "good old
days"; extreme reactionaries
favour change through violence)
radicals
liberals
moderates
conservatives
reactionaries
human rights
egalitarianism
freedom
internationalism
human rights
personal liberty
human rights with some limitations
personal liberty with some controls
equality with some inequality
international cooperation while defending national interests
little government interference
few restrictions on personal freedom
private property
law and order
some elitism
authoritarian rule
inequality
private property
preservation and advancement of national interests
Economic-Political Grid
Democratic Socialism
Democratic Capitalism
Dictatorial Socialism
(Communism)
Dictatorial Capitalism
(Fascism)
ex. Sweden
ex. USSR
ex. USA
ex. Nazi Germany
Maximum Political Freedom
Maximum Political Control
Maximum Economic Freedom
Maximum Economic Control
CENTRE
SUPPORT THE VALUES OF ...
Test Yourself!
Principles of Individualism
Do you remember the principles of individualism?
PRICES
Private Property
Rule of Law
Individual Rights and Freedoms
Competition
Economic Freedom
Self-Interest
Principles of individualism=Principles of liberalism
Principles of Collectivism
What are the principles of collectivism?
PRINCE
P
Public Property
Collective
R
esponsibility
Collective
I
nterest
Adherence to Collective
N
orms
C
o-operation
E
conomic Equality
Hobbes
Locke
Rousseau
For the next few questions, test yourself to see if you know if it's an idea associated with Hobbes, Locke or Rousseau. The answer to each of the following questions will either be HOBBES, LOCKE or ROUSSEAU.
He believed that human nature is characterized by fear, violence, and dangerous self-interest.
Everyone is obliged by the natural moral law (which can be discovered by reason) not to harm another person or take his possessions.
Nature of humans to be selfish and to care nothing about others anarchy, chaos, which leads to violence and destruction.
Natural man was neither moral nor vicious; he was not unhappy or happy.
The general will is always right because it functions in the best interests of the entire group.
Freedom is only possible if the people surrender their liberty to an all-powerful sovereign.
If a sovereign loses power, he ceases to be sovereign and the people are left to their own devices for self-protection, until they agree to give their obedience to a new sovereign who can protect them.
The purpose of government is to protect and foster the individual’s rights and liberties.
People are most free when they are governed the least.
Natural man differed from the animals in his ability to improve himself, at some point men united in a society in order to improve themselves.
You will learn more about Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau in Unit 2.
Please study your Unit 2 material BEFORE proceeding to the Unit 2 Review Prezi.
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