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Chapter 9 Collapse
Transcript of Chapter 9 Collapse
CHAPTER 9 In Chapter 9 of Collapse, the writer delves into a more positive note and give the stories behind 3 successful countries, The New Guinean Highlands, The Island of Tikopia, and parts of Japan under rule of a Shogun, called Tokugaw. It tells of how each island had nearly fallen to collapse, yet risen up by working with the environment, instead of off of it. "General" Summary Tokugawa The area know as Tokugawa is parts of Japan that were under rule of a Shogun, that existed from 1603 to 1868. Tokugawa had a "Top-down" ecological approach because of its size, which helped it recover after the large amount of deforestation in the area.
In the beginning of the rule of the first shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, many trees were cut down to build the houses, palaces, and statues that the shogun wanted. This originally started the deforestation of the area, but then a period of civil war made the area become even more barren as generals cut down trees to provide materials for weapons and other materials of war.
After the war ended, the government of the area created districts that a certain general ruled over. At this time, the people became more self-conscious of the forest areas and started different areas of conservation, along with restrictions on what materials certain classes of people could use. The chapter also talked about the different ways civilizations care about the land, which included a "top-down" response, which is where a group of people only care about their land and no-one else, which only works in large countries such as North America, and a "bottom-up", where the people of the island care about the entire island, so know what is going on at everyplace on that island. Tikopia Tikopia was a small island in the Southwest Pacific Ocean that had a problem similar to Tokugawa, deforestation, but handled it in their way, which was with "bottom-up" ecological conservation. The island of Tikopia was a very isolated island that caused many of the people to have to rely on only the island for materials and resources. When people first began life there, they made their houses on the top of the hills and created farms that relied on the marsh or the rainforest areas that made up most of the island. The people who resided on the island had to keep a small population due to the size of the habitual area, and the rest is used for farming. As the population increased, many parts of the island became more and more barren, as the houses required more wood. When this problem arose, the people of the island had to think of more ways to save wood and keep the population down. New Guinean Highlands The New Guinean Highlands are a large area in the center of New Guinea. This area is largely rolling hills and mountains that dominates a portion of the area, which makes some of the area not suitable for farming. This was also one of the most successful bottom up management of a society. The Highlands are also one of the largest running experiments of sustainable food production.
The people of the Highlands also have made advancements in agriculture, with the introduction of crop rotation, which helps keep the soil strong, and other methods that were more advanced than the Europeans, although the Europeans look down on them as uncivilized, as they didn't have any kind of king or leader. New Guineas Problems Many of the people in the New Guinean Highlands
have had multiple problems with the forest that they live off of, such as the animals that live in them, and the deforestation that has hindered many of the efforts to create area that would contain the population explosion. The population explosion is one of the major problems in New Guinea, which causes more resources to be demanded, which depletes them faster than if the resources had less strain. The other problem in New Guinea is the rapid deforestation of the land. As the population increases, so does the need for wood, which has caused large areas to become barren, hurting the natural ecosystem of the area. Other problems include the arrival of Europeans, and their impact on the land, increasing temperatures causing some crops to die before they can be harvested, and large amounts of volcanoes, which destroys many peoples home and farmland. Tokugawa Problems One of the main problems in Tokugawa was the deforestation that came with the houses and palaces, but one of the other major problems was the isolation from all the other countries that existed at that time. As more people came into the Tokugawa area, and more farms took up land and resources, parts of Tokugawa became more eroded and floods destroyed many farms without management of the erosion. It was also a low lying area, which had little area for farming, causing major famine in the early 1600's.