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4 Level Grammar Analysis

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Hannah Hoffer

on 22 November 2014

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Transcript of 4 Level Grammar Analysis

The climb to the top of the mountain was quite perfidious.
Phrases
Phrases
Phrases are the third level in 4-level grammar analysis . Phrases are a group of words that do not contain a subject or a verb, which makes them a incomplete idea. Phrases act as a single part of speech . There are many different types of phrases and I'm going to tell you about them.
Clauses
The last level of four-level grammar analysis is clauses. Clauses are a group of words similar to a phrase, but they always contain a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: dependent and independent.
Dependent Clauses
A dependent clause has a subject and predicate, but it can't stand alone as a sentence. Sometimes it is also called a subordinate clause. It does not convey a complete thought. Dependent clauses often begin with a subordinating conjunction.
The Prepositional Phrase
The prepositional phrase obviously begins with a preposition and almost always ends with a noun. It might have adjectives or other modifying words in between the preposition and the noun. It will never contain the subject of the sentence. This phrase modifies other words in the sentence, like a adjective or a adverb would.
The Verbal Phrase
The Appositive Phrase
An example of an appositive phrase:
The Participle Phrase
Another type of verbal is the participle . The participle is a form of a verb that performs the work of an adjective. . Unlike a gerund which always ends in -ing , the participle ends in -ing, -ed, -en, or any verb form. The participle always acts like like a adjective which modifies nouns or pronouns. It might acted alone or with other words to make a participle phrase.
The Infinitive Phrase
A infinitive is a type of verbal. Infinitives are the word "to" plus a verb transformed into a adjective , noun , or adverb. A infinitive phrase starts with a infinitive and may include an object and modifiers . At times the "to" is implied and that is called a bare infinitive.
Example:
After the snow came




This group of words is a clause because it contains a subject and predicate, but it does not convey a complete thought. Therefore, it is a dependent clause. It needs to be combined with an independent clause to create a sentence.
Independent Clauses
Example: The road conditions became perfidious.





Since there is a subject and predicate, this is a clause. It can stand alone as a sentence, so this is an independent clause.
An independent clause has a subject and predicate and conveys a complete thought. This kind of clause can stand alone as a sentence.
Clauses
Clause Combinations
Parts of Speech
The 8 parts of speech are:
Noun
Pronoun
Verb
Adverb
Adjective
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection
NOUN
A noun names a thing or and idea.
There are two main types of nouns: common and proper.
Common nouns name general items. Ex: stove, wallet, table
Proper nouns name specifics and are always capitalized.
Ex: Amanda, Michelle, Chili's

There are another two types of nouns
called concrete and abstract.
Concrete nouns are objects that are
tangible. Ex. refrigerator, computer
Abstract nouns are ideas that are in-
tangible. Ex. love, anger, fury
Pronoun
A pronoun takes the place of a noun.
There are two types of pronouns: subject and object.
Subject pronouns: I, you, he, she , it, we, they
Object pronouns: Me, you, him, her, it, us, them
Example:
She
ate the shimmering red apple.
In this sentence the word 'she' is a pronoun substituing
a noun.
Verb
A verb is a word that shows action.

There are two types of verbs: action and
linking.
An action verb is when the subject of the sentence is doing an action you can see. Ex: Cassandra
jumped
over the fence.
Micheo
kissed
her goodbye.


A linking verb does not show action. Instead, they connect
the subject to additional information about it. You can not
see someone doing a linking verb.
Ex. Keila
is
a pretty girl.
Dorothy
was
a very good saleswoman.
Adjective
Adjectives are describing words. They modify
nouns or pronouns, and answer the question
"what kind?."
The words
and
,
a
and
the
are special adjectives called
articles
.

Example: Caleb took the
shimmering
apple from the tree.
In the sentence above the word 'shimmering' is describing the noun 'apple'.
Example: She looked so
pretty
with her ball gown.
In this sentence the word 'pretty' is describing the pronoun 'she'.
Parts of a Sentence
Subject
Predicate
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Subject Complement
action
linking
The subject is the noun or pronoun that the sentence is about.
The predicate is the verb and other words that are about the subject.
The direct object is the noun or pronoun that receives the action of the transitive action verb.
The indirect object is the noun or pronoun that is located between the action verb and the direct object and is indirectly affected by the action.
The subject complement is the noun, pronoun, or adjective that is linked into an equation with the subject by a linking verb.
Caitlyn , my cousin, is hilarious .
An example of a prepositional phrase:
The moribund plant sits in the windowsill.
In my example you will see that an appositive phrase is a interrupting phrase. The appositive phrase is typically surrounded by commas. I like this type of phrase most of all.
Group #1's Four Level Analysis Project
You see in this picture the word "the" is starting of the appositive phrase and the word "rodent" is ending it . "The world's largest rodent" is interrupting the sentence giving you more information about the capybara.
Independent and dependent clauses form sentences. Since dependent clauses cannot stand as sentences alone, they must be combined with an independent clause. There are several different ways to combine clauses into sentences.
A sentence with one
independent clause
is a simple sentence.
It is truly the most
simple combination.
Simple Sentence
No one in our class would ever feel this way about grammar, but this is a good example of a simple sentence.
Compound Sentence
Compound sentences are sentences which contain two independent clauses. The clauses are joined together with a conjunction or combined with a semicolon.
Conj. adj. n. v.
S AVP
no phrases
------------Dependent Clause-------------
adj. adj. n. v. adj.
S LVP SC
no phrases
-----------------Independent Clause----------------
Example sentence: Camille went up the tall ladder.
Noun Verb Prep. Adj. Adj. Noun
Sub. AVP
----------Prep Phrase--------
-----------------independent clause--------------
Simple declarative sentence
noun pron. noun verb adj.
____________________________________________
Subj. LVP S.C.
_________________________________________________
--Appositive phrase--
_________________________________________________
--------------------Independent clause-------------------------
simple declarative sentence
adj./art. adj. noun verb prep. noun
__________________________________________________________
Subj. AVP
__________________________________________________________
--------PREP. Phrase-----------
__________________________________________________________
--------------------------Independent clause-------------------------------
simple declarative sentence
adj./art.
Example of a infinitive phrase used as a noun:
Sally wanted to be a chef.
noun verb -noun- noun
______________________________________
Subj. AVP -------D.O.-----------
______________________________________
--Infinitive phrase--
______________________________________
-----------independent clause--------------
Simple declarative sentence
adj./art.
Example of a infinitive phrase used as a adjective:
Example of a infinitive phrase used as a adverb:
A verbal is not a verb at all. It's more like a ex-verb acting like a noun, adjective, or a adverb. When we change it from a verb to a different part of speech , that is when it is called a verbal. . There are three different types of verbals : gerunds , participles, and infinitives.
The gerund is one of three verbals.The gerund is a verb with -ing on the end acting as a noun . A gerund can stand alone or be pared with other words to make a gerund phrase. Gerunds and gerund phrases can include subjects , objects or compliments .
The Gerund Phrase
An example of a participle phrase:
We saw Jane running the marathon .
pron verb noun adj. adj./art. noun
_______________________________________________
Subj. AVP D.O.
_______________________________________________
--------Participle phrase------------
_______________________________________________
------------------Independent clause ------------------------
Simple declarative sentence
An example of a gerund phrase as the subject:
An example of a Gerund Phrase as the object:
John was sleeping soundly.
noun verb noun adj.
_________________________
Subj. LVP --------s.c.--------
_________________________
--Gerund phrase--
_________________________
------Independent clause ------
Simple declarative sentence
Building a tree house is fun.
noun adj. noun verb noun
________________________________
------------Subj.------------- Lvp S.C.
________________________________
-------Gerund phrase-------
________________________________
--------Independent clause--------------
Simple declarative sentence
adj./art.
Example: The bear lunged for the fish, and he caught his dinner.
--------Independent Clause------- ---------------Independent --
A falling coconut knocked out the lifeguard.
Subj. AVP
Complex Sentence
Complex sentences are sentences which contain both an independent clause and a dependent clause. There are generally two patterns of these clauses, one having the dependent clause come first (D, I) or one having the independent clause first (ID).
Example: While the cat was away, the mice played.
---Dependent Clause--- --Independent Clause--
--Independent Clause------
Example: The church bells rang out as the service began.
Independent Clause Dependent Clause
Compound-Complex Sentence
Compound-complex sentences are a combination of combinations! A compound-complex sentence contains at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause.
Subj. LVP S.C.
Our friend bought his son a surfboard.
Subj. AVP I.O. D.O.
Parts of a Sentence Examples:
Answers the question
"what?" or "whom?"
Answers the question
"to whom?", "for whom",
or
"for what?"
Sammy told Jane to go outside.
Noun verb noun -adv.- noun
_________________________________________
Subj. AVP D.O.
_________________________________________
---Infinitive Phrase---
_________________________________________
------------------Independent Clause----------------
Simple declarative sentence
Example of a bare Infinitive:
I want a book to read during summer.
Pron. verb noun ---adj.--- prep. noun
__________________________________________________
Subj. AVP D.O.
__________________________________________________
------------Infinitive Phrase-----------
---prepositional phrase---
__________________________________________________
------------------------Independent clause-----------------------
Simple declarative sentence
adj./art.
We watched the bird fly
The word Fly would be the bare infinitive.
Example: As Henry walked under the tree, an acorn dropped, and it landed on his head with a thud.
Sentence Purposes
Preposition
A preposition shows the relationship
between its object and another word
in the sentence.

Sometimes a preposition consists of more than one word and is called a
compound preposition.
Example: We drove
to
the store.

In the sentence above the preposition 'to' shows the relationship between 'drove' and 'store'.

Example:
According to
John, no one enjoyed the party very much.

In this sentence 'according to' is an example of a
compound preposition.
Interjection
Conjunction
Adverb
A
conjunction
joins two words or two groups of words together.
An interjection shows emotion but has no grammar function.
An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
There are
conjunctive adverbs
(ex.
however, therefore, furthermore
) which connect two clauses, but they are primarily adverbial in function.
Example: Sherman

easily

lifted the weights.

In this sentence the adverb 'easily' modifies
the verb 'lifted'.
There are
two
types of conjunctions
coordinating conjunctions
, (
and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
) and
subordinating conjunctions
. (
if, as, since, when, because
)
Example: Sam wants to play soccer for his school,
but
he is having trouble meeting the academic requirements.

In this sentence 'but' is an example of a coordinating conjunction

Example:
Because
he loved drama, he refused to give up his dream of acting on Broadway.

In this sentence 'because' is an example of a subordinating conjunction.
An interjection isn't like any of the other parts of speech because it has no grammar function whatsoever. It does not join or modify any other part of speech, it just adds exclamation to the sentence.
Example:
Ahh
, that feels wonderful.

In this sentence 'ahh' is the interjection.
Is a person, place, thing, or idea that is
doing
or
being
something.
Answers the questions
"who?"
or
"what?"
Can be an action verb predicate or a linking verb predicate.
Linking verbs link the subject and its predicate together without showing action.
Action verbs link the subject and its predicate together by showing action.
A subject is a subject, and an object is an object.
When there is a direct object we call the action verb transitive because the verb carries the energy from the subject to the predicate.
The direct object is the object of direct action.
There
MUST
be a direct object for there to be an indirect object.
The indirect object comes
BEFORE
the direct object.
The subject complement "renames" the subject.

Ex: Ron is Harry's friend.

The word "
friend"
renames the word
"Ron"
.
Is linked to the subject by a linking verb.
The Four Main Sentence Types
There are four main types of sentences which are named for their purpose.
Declarative Sentence
Declarative sentences are by far the most common type of sentence we use. They simply give a declaration; they give facts.
Examples: The car is blue.
Yesterday, we went to the store.
I am hungry.
After a long night, the ship finally reached harbor.
Interrogative Sentence
Interrogative sentences ask questions. They always end with a question mark.
They are very useful for finding new information!
Examples: What time will dinner be ready?
Did you clean your room?
When will Jennifer graduate?
----Dependent Clause------ ---Independent--- ----Independent Clause-----
In four-level grammar analysis, sentences are labeled based on their clause combination and the purpose of the sentence.
Example: Is that your red hat?
v pro adj adj n
LVP S SC
no phrases
-----Independent Clause------
Simple Interrogative Sentence
Imperative Sentence
Imperative sentences give commands. Often, the subject "you" is understood and is not written.
Examples: Clean your room.
Wash the potatoes.
Go to bed.
Exclamatory Sentence
Exclamatory sentences show great emotion. They end with an exclamation sign.
Examples: I saw three deer in the field!
I stubbed my toe!
There is a spider in my hair!
Thank you for viewing our project!
The End
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