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Transcript of Learning Disabilities
Researcher Kosc defined it as the difficulty in mathematics as a result of particular brain impairment.
This is the same definition that researchers in cognitive neuroscience use today.
Dyscalculia describes people who have significant problems with numbers but have a normal or above normal IQ.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder related to learning disabilities; however, each must be diagnosed and treated separately.
It is estimated that 18% to 40% of individuals with ADHD have associated learning disabilities.
ADHD is a diagnosis applied to children and adults who consistently display certain characteristic behaviors over a period of time.
Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing, which requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills.
Also defined as writing or fine motor skills deficit.
Dysgraphia makes the act of writing difficult.
Dyslexia is one of the most common “learning disabilities in reading”
Challenge is linguistics realated, not visual.
Traits vary from person to person
One common trait is reading level is lower than others.
Learning Disabilities (LDs)
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes used to understand or use language spoken or written.
Imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.
The Learning Disabilities Association of America say most common LDs “include dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder”
Why is it Important to learn about LDs?
"Dyslexia is a major learning disability which affects nearly 20% of Americans," said Congressman Cassidy.
2013- 2.4 million students diagnosed with LDs receive special education services in schools, that makes up 41% of all students receiving special education.
Most treatments for mathematics disorder need to be individualized and can include:
Place in special math classrooms with experts in math.
Incorporate all five senses
Touch=Manipulatives, Hear= Say it, etc.
Individualized tutoring which focuses on their specific learning problem.
Ex: organization: use graph paper to organize numbers
1887 – Rudolf Berlin redefines reading problems using term "Dyslexia." "Very great difficulty in interpreting written or printed symbols."
18 years later – The first U.S. report of childhood reading difficulties is published by Cleveland ophthalmologist Dr. W.E. Brune.
1969 – Congress passes the Children with Specific Learning Disabilities Act, which is included in the Education of the Handicapped Act of 1970 (PL 91-230). This is the first time federal law mandates support services for students with learning disabilities.
1987 – A report released by the Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities calls for the establishment of Centers for the Study of Learning and Attention, whose sole purpose is to expand
and understanding of this issue.
2013-2014-The Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity Petition that Congress require that testing agencies grant accommodations for dyslexic students so that high stakes tests assess ability and not disability.
Get evaluation to determine whether ADHD is present
Take appropriate course of action.
Medication (stimulants, antidepressants and Clonidine) are commonly used in the treatment of ADHD.
A few solutions that may help include:
Suggest use of word processor or Dragon
Avoid negative remarks for sloppy work
Use oral exams
Allow use of tape recorder for lectures
Allow the use of a note taker
Provide notes or outlines to reduce the amount of writing required
Allow use of wide rule paper and graph paper
Suggest use of pencil grips and /or specially designed writing aids
Provide alternatives to written assignments (video-taped reports, audio-taped reports)
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S." Calendar 2001-2002
For dyslexic students, technology opens doors and allows them to demonstrate their knowledge in ways that were unimaginable in the past.
HOW CAN WE HELP?
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) lived with dyslexia.
Billionaire Richard Branson, founder of the Virgin Group, was born with dyslexia
Illegible printing and cursive writing (despite appropriate time and attention given the task)
Shows inconsistencies: mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or irregular sizes, shapes or slant of letters
Dragon Naturally Speaking for PC users and Dragon Dictate for Mac users is another technological aide that facilitates the learning process for the dyslexic student.
Students can dictate ideas and watch them appear on screen.
Dyslexic students may need additional assistance in reading words.
facilitates note taking and learning process.
Recording classroom discussions
Taking fewer notes
For homework or review, students can listen to important information a second time, add notes, and review what has already been written.
Dyslexic students can spend more time listening and learning.
Difficulty in learning to tell time, left/right orientation, rules in games, etc.
Difficulty solving basic math problems using addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
They struggle to remember and retain basic math facts (i.e. times tables)
Trouble figuring out how to apply their knowledge and skills to solve math problems.
Common Features and Challenges:
Distractibility (poor sustained attention to tasks)
Impulsivity (impaired impulse control and delay of gratification)
Hyperactivity (excessive activity and physical restlessness)
Teachers need to be informed and obtain external assistance from experts if necessary.
What is happening now?
Some educational outcomes for students with learning disabilities have shown improvements in recent years, overall they remain unacceptably low.
Close to half of secondary students with LD perform more than three grade levels below their enrolled grade in essential academic skills (45% in reading, 44% in math)
of LD students graduate high school with a regular diploma vs. 74% of students in the general population.
of LD students drop out of high school vs. 8% of students in the general population.
of students with LD are enrolled in a four-year college within two years of leaving school, compared with 28% of the general population.
Among working-age adults with LD versus those without LD:
vs. 76% are employed;
vs. 3% of adults are unemployed; and
vs. 21% are not in the labor force partly because of lack of education.
Future educators need to know!
LDs prevent student learning in a school setting.
Not caused by you! LDs are not caused by environmental factors, like cultural differences, or bad teaching.
We can make a difference in the growth of LD students!
Teachers can help by:
Providing consistency — persons with ADHD do not deal well with change
Helping the child organize his/her time, school work, and break tasks into small components
Providing a quiet study area free from distractions
Place students with ADHD in front of classroom to avoid distractions