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Phillip S

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of Socialization

Nature vs. Nurture
Both are definitely influential
Some scientists (socio-biologists)emphasize biology (nature) more
The issue is most prevalent in the field of psychology
Input 3
Theories of Development
"How you get a personality"

Freud-Psychoanalitic Perspective
Cooley "looking glass"
Mead-Role Taking
the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental and social skills needed for survival in society
Freud-Psychoanalytic Perspective
Behavior originates from unconscious forces within individuals
Placed great significance on sexual motivations in people
Human development occurs in 3 states: id, ego, super-ego
-component of personality that includes basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification
-the rational, reality oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id
-the "conscience" that consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality
Kohlberg stages of moral development

Preconventional level
(7-10)-perceptions based on punishment and obedience
Conventional level
(10-adult)-concerned with how they are perceived by others
Postconventional level
- (few adults)-People view morality in terms of individual rights, and conduct is judged by principles that go beyond laws or other people's perceptions
Identified 3 levels of moral reasoning
Self Concept
-the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves, made up of 4 components
Physical self
active self
social self
psychological self
After early childhood, the focus shifts from the physical and active dimensions to the social and psychological aspects
Cooley "Looking Glass"
Sociological theories of development emphasize social contact with others in forming a sense of self
Looking-glass self
-Cooley's term for the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others
Socialization analogy
is the software or apps that make the computer able to function in society and do useful things.

is how the cultural software is installed on the computer.

"I am, who I think, you think I am"
The self stems from our ability to take on other's points of view and see ourselves from his or her perspective
Cooley "Looking Glass"
Do you think we are deeply influenced by how we imagine others seeing us? Do you think we are usually correct about how we perceive other people's perceptions of us?
Mead-Role Taking
Role Taking-the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person's point of view
The self is divided into two, the "I" and the "me"
"I"-develops first, and is the spontaneous and unique traits of a person
"me"-composed of the internalized attitudes and demands of other members of society
Both the "I" and "me" are needed to develop the social self
Mead-Role Taking
Children develop the "me" (perception of society's demands) during 3 phases:

Preparatory stage
(0-3)-Children mostly imitate those around them

Play stage
(3-5)-Learning language and symbols allows children to pretend to take roles of others, they begin to see themselves in relation to others

Game stage
(5+)-Children learn their social position and the position of those around them
Full transcript