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D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

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Levi Clinton

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide By Levi Clinton Question: What are the effects and therapeutic uses of LSD? Introduction Lysergic acid diethylamide (abbreviated LSD-25 or simply LSD) is a semi-synthetic hallucinogen discovered in the late 1930’s, but not widely used until the 1950’s and 60’s. It is one of the most well known hallucinogens and is often used as a standard by which other psychedelic drugs are compared. History & Synthesis LSD-25 is a semi-synthetic derivative of ergotamine, a chemical derived from the grain fungus ergot. Ergot grows most commonly on rye, barley, and other types of grain. If ingested, ergot is a deadly poison. Discovery LSD-25 was discovered by Albert Hofmann in 1938, but was set aside with little testing until April 16, 1943 when Hofmann decided to revisit the chemical. He accidentally ingested a minute dose of the chemical, and was the first person to experience LSD. Later on April 19 he intentionally took 250 micrograms of the substance to confirm the effects. Synthesis LSD-25 received it’s name from being the twenty-fifth compound produced in a series of ergot derivatives.
The chemical formula for LSD is C20H25N3O.
Hofmann’s original goal was to create a medicine that that would help treat migraine headaches, not a hallucinogenic drug. Forms and Dosages LSD comes in a variety of forms such as blotter paper, thin gelatin tablets, small pills called microdots, sugar cubes, and in liquid form. Of these the most common are blotter paper and liquid.
Threshold dose of LSD is 20 micrograms, with average dosages ranging between 50-150 micrograms. Stronger dosages range from 150-400 micrograms.
A typical blotter tab ranges anywhere from 30-100 micrograms of LSD. Physiological and Psychological Effects of LSD Physiological Effects of LSD-25 LSD’s physiological effects range from pupil dilation, increased salivation, slight increase in blood pressure and temperature, nausea, and body sensations such as facial flushing, goosebumps, chills, and body energy.
These physiological changes occur due to the effects of LSD on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
These physical symptoms tend to occur within during the coming up period which lasts about an hour and a half, and begin to subside after the first four hours of the trip.
The average LSD trip lasts anywhere from 8 to 12 hours, with the most intense part of the trip being the first 4 hours.
LSD is known to affect places in the brain affected by the neurotransmitter serotonin.

Psychological Effects of LSD-25 Psychological effects of an LSD trip may include change in time perception, elevated thoughts, mental looping, spiritual experiences, connection to other people and the universe, loss of sense of identity called an 'ego death', witnessing closed and open eyed visuals, and intensified and rapidly changing emotions.
Visuals often include enhanced colors, trails, geometric patterns, and brightness.
Psychological effects of LSD can vary greatly from person to person, and even from different "set[s] and setting[s]" as Timothy Leary called it.
Therapeutic Uses of LSD-25 "At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away."
-Albert Hofmann describing his first LSD trip. LSD as a Potential Cure for Alcoholism A study taking place from 1966 to 1970 compared two groups of people receiving treatment for alcohol, one receiving a single dose of LSD between 210-800 micrograms, the other receiving none. Initially 59% of the LSD group showed reduced levels of alcohol use, compared to the 38% of the non-LSD group. However many of these effects went away after six months to a year.
Another similar study reported two-thirds of alcoholics receiving LSD quitting drinking for 18 months compared to only one-fourth of alcoholics not receiving LSD.
Studies on LSD in regards to alcoholism nearly stopped altogether after the drug was made illegal in the US in 1968 and internationally in 1971.
LSD as a Potential Cure for Cluster Headaches Cluster headaches are a rare but excruciating medical condition characterized by being located in only one side of the head and occurring at regular daily intervals at part of a circadian rhythm.
Cluster headaches have been described by many doctors as the most intense pain a human can experience, cited as being more painful than childbirth and limb amputation with anesthetic.
A 2006 study conducted interviews of 53 cluster headache patients who had used either psilocybin or LSD to treat their headaches. Seven of 8 patients reported termination of the cluster period, and 4 of 5 patients reported an extended remission period.
Conclusion: Lysergic acid diethylamide is a strong psychedelic with great potential for therapuetic uses, however there currently isn't enough research to prove anything.
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